D.V. Dubyna, P.A. Tymoshenko, Yu.R. Shelyag-Sosonko
STATE AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYTODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF SEASIDE SPITS AND ISLANDS OF THE AZOV-BLACK SEA REGION OF UKRAINE
Floristic and coenotic diversity of spits and islands, where it was found 1172 vascular plant species (about 80 among them are endemics), are considered.
It is revealed 187 associations, 53 unions, 40 orders and 27 classes of vegetation. 82 associations are rare in the region. N egative influence of afforestation, grazing, recreation, built-up territories of the natural complexes is shown here. The additions to environmental legislation, which touch on a spits and islands biodiversity, are offered. It is proposed to provide the botany core-areas as the most vulnerable, unprotected and plant diversity richest natural integral landscapes.
ALLOCATION OF BIOMASS AS A CRITERION OF VITALITY OF INDIVIDUALS IN POPULATIONS OF HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS IN THE CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS
In this article, laws of distribution and accumulation of the biomass are generalized depending on vitality of herbaceous plants of the Carpathian mountains. On the basis of these parameters, methods of differentiation of the structure of populations of herbaceous plants are offered. The fact is confirmed, that vitality heterogeneity promotes stabilization of functional processes and preservation of viability of populations.
PHYTOCOENOTIC COMPOSITION OF PRZEWALSKI'S HORSE (EQUUS PRZEWALSKII POLJAKOV, 1881) FEEDING GROUNDS IN THE CHORNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE
Phytocoenotic research of feeding grounds of Przewalski's horse in the Chornobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) has been carried out in terms of complex ecological research of this animals. The communities with prevalence of grasses, legumes and some species of sedge are of great forage value for introducted animals. Long-fallow lands and meadow s are the main habitat lands for the Przewalski's horses in CEZ. The main food for horses is widely represented in grass community in long-fallow lands, in forb-grass communites in dry meadows and, in bottomlands meadows. 30 associations are found in the territory.
NEW LOCALITIES OF NYMPHOIDES PELTATA (S.G. GMEL) O. KUNTZE (MENYANTHECEAE ) IN UKRAINE
The article informs about five new locations of Nymphoides peltata in Ukraine. The characteristics of modern expansion and ecological cenotic peculiarities of its distribution on the territory of Western Podolia are given. The leading factors of anthropogenetic influence are considered and measures for protection of Nymphoides peltata communities are proposed.
LYCOPODIELLA INUNDATA (L.) HOLUB IN KANIV PRYDNIPROVYA (CHERKASY REGION)
Location data on the rare species Lycopodiella inundata (L.) Holub listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine (1996) at the pinery terrace of the Dnieper (Kaniv District of Cherkasy region) are presented. At the territory of landscape game reserve "Sadyba kozaka Maksyma" there are three localities with not numerous populations (62—320 individuals) of L. inundata and in the protected zone of Kaniv Nature Reserve only one decreasing population (only 27 induviduals) are noted and described.
FLORISTIC FSNDS IN THE NORTH-EAST OF UKRAINE
New localities are reported for 11 species listed in the "Red Data Book of Ukraine": Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch, Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank et Mart., Lilium martagon L., Pulsatilla bogemica (Scalicky) Tzvelev, Salix starkeana Willd., Listera ovata (L.) R. Br., Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich. Localities of 10 rare species for the northern part of Chernigiv and Sumy regions are also described. The habitats, coenotic and ecological features of all localities are characterized. Short population characteristics for these species are provided.
ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RIVER PHYTOPLANKTON (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE TETERIV RIVER)
The paper considers ecological characteristics of phytoplankton in the Teteriv River both in general and in its different reaches (upper, down and regulated). The data on the algal cells dimensions of the river plankton are given. The proportions of algae belonging to various ecological groups in the divisions are snown.
THE MORFOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL RUIT FEATURES OF SPECIES OF THE GENUS B UPLEURUM L. WITHIN THE UKRAINIAN FLORA
Following different data, the genus Bupleurum L. includes 14–23 species the Ukrainian flora. A complicated intraspecies structure of many species cycles within the genus, an absence of the genus special investigation in Ukraine last 50 years, some conflicting data in floristical summaries, ambiguous molecular taxonomy results concerning the genus determine an actuality of the problem arising, finding out and verification of phylogenetically and taxonomically important characters. The aim of the work is to estimate an efficiency of the anatomical method in Bupleurum systematics and to define fruit structure features for species of the Ukrainian flora. There was used the herbarium of M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany (NAS of Ukraine, KW).
The morphological and anatomical fruit features for 10 species are described with adding pictures. Within sections the most stable carpological features are considered the oil vittae arrangement and quantity in the pericarp. The mericarp cross sections of B. rotundifolium L., B. affine Sadler, B. brachiatum K. Koch., B. ranunculoides L. are characterised by single oil vittae between dorsal ribs and two ones on the comisura. The mericarp cross sections of B. falcatum L., B. asperuloides Heldr. ex Boiss. are characterised by 3–5 oil vittae in each valekula and 2–4 ones on comisura. Species B. gerardii All., B. woronowii Manden., B. marschallianum C.A. Mey., and probably B. tenuissimum L. are characterised by ring-arranged or almost ring-arranged oil vittae. Bupleurum tenuissimum, B. marschallianum, B. gerardii, B. affine can be reliably defined using anatomical fruit cross section features only. There is necessary a special investigation to have obtained data on occuration of the species B. longifolium L., B. commutatum Boiss. Et Ball., B. odontites L., B. subfalcatum Schur and B. ranunculoides L. within the Ukrainian flora.
HORMONAL CONTROL OF POTTIA INTERMEDIA (FURNR.) TURN APOSPOROUS GAMETOPHYTE DEVELOPMENT
It has been shown that the effect of 1.0—10.0 mМ of ABA and kinetin on regeneration of protonema from leaves of aposporous clone of the moss Pottia intermedia is markedly changed following the formation of the leaf apogamous structure. That is considered to be a consequence of a alterations in the cell hormonal status caused by appearance of the new attractive center of the sporophytic differentiation influencing metabolic gradients in the regenerating leaf. The experiments indicate that the ratio of IAA and kinetin may be of great importance in development of apogamous structures on gametophores. The after effect of the transitory (14 h) treatment of aposporous protonema with kinetin of high concentration (10 mМ) on the reduction of apogamous structures on gametophores has been established, the antagonism in formation of gametophytic and apogamous structures being maintained. Apogamy has been found to be lost stably after prolonged growth of aposporous protonema on Murashige-Skoog medium containing sucrose, kinetin and ABA. The proposal that the capacity for apogamy may be to the release of protonemal cells from a putative extrachromosomal factor for apogamy is discussed.
A NEW DATA OF THE ENDEMICS IN THE CRIMEAN FLORA. I.
On the base of the newest data analysis, a list of narrow endemics of the Crimean flora is corrected, with comprises now 127 species and subspecies.
SPECIES OF VASCULAR PLANTS DESCRIBED FROM THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE, THEIR TYPIFICATION AND CRITICAL TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS: THE FAMILY ROSACEAE JUSS. (GENERA AMYGDALUS L., CERASUS HILL, COTONEASTER MEDIK., PRUNUS L., PYRUS L., SORBUS L., SPIRAEA L.)
The list of species of Rosaceae Juss. (genera: Amygdalus L., Cerasus Hill., Cotoneaster Medik., Prunus L., Pyrus L., Sorbus L., Spiraea L.) described from the territory of Ukraine, incl. Crimea, is presented. Typification were carried out on the base of the analysis of protologs and study of authentic herbarium material. Literature citations, basionym, type and place of keeping, ecological and chorological pecularities and new taxonomical information are presented for each species.
NOMENCLATURE OF NORTH AMERICAN "ASTERS" CULTIVATED AND ESCAPED IN UKRAINE, FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF GENERIC DELIMITATION IN TRIBE ASTEREAE (ASRERACEAE)
The article provides a brief overview of historical and modern opinions on generic delimitation of Aster L. and related genera (Astereae: Asteraceae), with a special emphasis on the segregate genus Symphyotrichum. North American taxa of Symphyotrichum (S. novae-angliae, S. novi-belgii, S. × salignum, etc.) are widely cultivated in Europe, and in Ukraine in particular, and often occur as escaped and naturalized near cultivation sites, in disturbed and semi-natural habitats. 6 species of Symphyotrichum are definitely known in Ukraine, occurrence of additional 3 species reported as cultivated in the Transcarpathian region require confirmation. Nomenclatural citations and brief notes are given for all species reported for the flora of Ukraine. Considerations about further research of taxonomy and distribution of alien species of North American "asters" in Ukraine are provided.
PHYLLACHORA AMBROSIAE (BERK. et M.A. CURT.) SACC. (PHYLLACHORALES, ASCOMYCETES), FIRST RECORD IN UKRAINE
Phyllachora ambrosiae (Phyllachorales, Sordariomycetidae, Ascomycetes) parasitizing common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, was collected for the first time in Ukraine. This is the second record of the fungus in Europe, after Hungary where it was found in 1999. In Ukraine the species was first observed in Kiev region in 1996. By now it has been registered in Kiev and Kiev region, Vinnytsia and Luhansk. The fungus can be apparently found in other regions of the country. It is suggested how Ph. ambrosiae, species of North American origin, could enter Ukraine and start spreading within the country. Various stages of Ph. ambrosiae life cycle on host plant are described: initial infected zones, blackened stromatic regions, anamorph and teleomorph. Some characters, particularly of anamorph, are for the first time described in details. Original illustrations of conidiomata and ascomata are given. Ph. ambrosiae is reported to have essential negative effect on the development of common ragweed, invasive plant in Ukraine. Due to reducing its pollen production, this biotrophic pathogen is suggested to be a natural control agent of the allergenic noxious weed, harmful for human health.
ON HIGHER BASIDIOMYCETES OF ZHIGULI. III. GENUS RAMARIOPSIS (DONK) CORNER
Results of study of clavarioid fungi inhabiting meadow communities of Zhiguli (Russia, Samara Region) are given. The descriptions of 6 Ramariopsis-species (Clavariadelphaceae, Gomphales) distributed in the communities under investigation are published. Within recorded species, R. kunzei and R. pulchella are rare over total distribution area. The taxonomical position of species in question is discussed.
NEW AND RARE LICHENICOLOUS FUNGI FROM UKRAINE
Two species of lichenicolous fungi (Stigmidium fuscatae (Arnold) R. Sant. growing on thallus of Acarospora fuscata (Nyl.) Arnold and Abrothallus coerulescens Kotte — on thallus of Xanthoparmelia somloensis (Gyeln.) Hale.) are recorded for Ukraine for the first time. Polycoccum pulvinatum (Eitner) R. Sant. growing on thallus of Physcia caesia (Hoffm.) Furnr. is first recorded for the deciduous forest zone of Ukraine. Descriptions including synonyms, diagnosis, location in Ukraine and general distribution are provided for each taxon.
NEW FOR UKRAINE SPECIES OF LICHENS FROM CRIMEA
Information on localities and ecology of 17 new for Ukraine species of lichens from Crimea is provided: Caloplaca albolutescens (Nyl.) H. Olivier, C. navasiana Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux, C. pellodella (Nyl.) Hasse, Catillaria pi cila (Massal.) Coppins, Lecanactis lyncea (Sm.) Fr., Lecanora reuteri Schaer, Micarea lithinella (Nyl.) Hedl., Opegrapha parasitica (A. Massal.) H. Olivier, Pertusaria amarescens Nyl., P. exludens Nyl., Placynthium asperellum (Ach.) Trevis., P. hungaricum Gyeln., Pyrenopsis subareolata Nyl., Rhizocarpon lecanorinum Anders, Rh. simillimum (Anzi) Lettau, Sarcogyne distinquenda Th. Fr., Toninia phillippea (Mont.) Timdal.
NEW FINDS OF LICHENS IN THE DONETS RIDGE
The article is devoted to studying of the Donets Ridge (Donetskiy Kryazh) lichenobiota. A brief literature review of the modern state of lichenological investigations in this region is given. Data about of 24 lichens new for the Donets Ridge are listed. One of them, Caloplaca albolutescens (Nyl.) H. Olivier, is new for the Ukrainian plain, and three species (Cladonia hungarica (Arnold) Vainio, Lepraria lobificans Nyl., Xanthoria ucrainica S. Kondr.) are new for the Ukrainian Steppe. Ten species are rare in the region.
GROWTH RATE AS QUANTITATIVE CRYTERION OF INVESTIGATION OF MICROSCOPIC FUNGI RESISTANCE TO COPPERIONS
It was found 11 high resistant (8 species, 6 genus), 13 resistant (12 species, 9 genus), 8 sensitive (7 species, 6 genus) and 2 supersensitive (1 species) to copper ions strains among 34 strains, 22 species, 12 genus of fungi. The resistance of microfungi to copper ions was inter- and intra-specific with strains and depended on composition of nutrient medium and copper ions concentration. Radial growth rate and diameter of fungal colonies decreased with increasing of copper ions concentration in medium.
RARE SPECIES OF THE FLORA OF RIVNENSKY NATURE ZAPOVIEDNIK
Rivnensky Nature Zapoviednik (47 046. 8 ha) is situated in West Polissia in Rivnenska Oblast' of Ukraine. Its vegetation is represented mainly by transition mires and pine forests. The flora of vascular plants includes 2 species of the European Red List (Silene lithuanica, Tragopogon ucrainicus), 1 species from Appendix I of the Bern Convention (Pulsatilla patens) and 30 species from the Red Data Book of Ukraine. The rarest of them are Goodyera repens, Hammarbya paludosa, Isoetes lacustris, and Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum. Data on distribution of these species on the protected area are given.
THE INFLUENCE OF CONTRACTILE ROOTS ACTIVITY ON THE STABILITY OF TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE L. POPULATIONS UNDER CONDITIONS OF PASTURE AND HAYMAIKING LOADING
The tendency to change of plunge of the root collar in plants of T. pratense in populations of the meadow phytocoenoses along the pascual gradient in dependence on soil density is studied. Increasing of pasture load leads to the progressive density of soil. As a result, the depth of root collar plunge is decreasing and the plants become more sensitive to grathing and other unfavourable factors. In fact, density increasing of the soil is essential for deterioration of T. pratense growing on the pasture. The haymaking load does not influence on the soil density and the depth of plant root collars.
THE PARTICULARITIES TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION WOODLAND SYTUCTURE SLOVECHANSKO-OVRUCHSKY RIDGE
The researches of ecotopes of Slovechansko-Ovruchsky ridge showed special features of placing of forest structures. The cartographic analysis of placing of forest structures was conducted. It enables for prognostication of ecological situation in the region and planning of more productive work on the guard of natural resources.
APPROXIMATION AND CHANGES OF THE BENTHIC PLANTS OF THE KARADAG NATURAL RESERVE
There is a geobothanical description of benthic plants communities of the Karadag sea shelf in the article. This researches based on cartographic plans that were done in 1984 and 2003. 20 plants communities were described. The tendencies of changes are shown in the article for the period in last 20 years.
EARLY STAGES OF EMBRYOGENESIS IN AERIAL-AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL PLANTS OF SIUM LATIFOLIUM L. (UMBELIFERAE)
Results of a study of embryo formation at the early stage of embryogenesis (up to the age of 15 days) in aerial-aquatic and terrestrial plants of Sium latifolium L. are presented. It is shown that the plants of both ecotypes differ among themselves in the umbel, flower and mericarpium sizes, and also in morphological peculiarities. The embryo formation of Sium species occurred according to the Solanaceae -type. Endosperm developed according to the nuclear type. The essential differences in the stages of embryo formation and their sizes in the aerial-aquatic and terrestrial plants of S. latifolium growing during various water regimes were not estimated.
AN IMMUNE CYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF PEROXYDASE IN LEAVES OF AERIAL-AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL FORMS SIUM LATIFOLIUM L.
The study of peroxydase (ЕС. 188.8.131.52) activity and localization in cells of epidermis and mesophyll in leaves of aerial-aquatic and terrestrial forms of Sium latifolium L. have been revealed using the immune cytochemical method and biochemical methods. Peroxydase conjugated with fluorescein isocyanate (FITC) was used in the experiments. The study was performed on a LSM 5 PASCAL (Zeiss, Germany) confocal-laser microscope. It is established that peroxydase is localized both in the walls of epidermis and mesophyll, and in mesophyll's chloroplasts. A moderate water deficit provoked the increase of peroxidase activity, the changes of intensity of fluorescence of the FITC-peroxydase complex in the investigated cells, the presence of peroxydase in vacuoles of mesophyll cells, and the increase of the number of mesophyll cells, in walls of which peroxidase has been revealed.
COLLECTION AND LEVEL OF HOMEOSTATIC IONS IN PLANT TISSUES DEPENDING ON THEIR AGES
Ionic composition and its peculiarities in the homeostasis of maize stem growth are considered at different stages of ontogenesis. The content of mineral elements and the activity of their ions are studied in tissues of different stem segments varying in their growth rate. Observations show that the stem growth function and the activity of ions are closely related. The period of peak growth function, especially in the first stage of ontogenesis, is characterized by an increase of ionic activity in tissues of a growing stem. The acropetal and basipetal distribution gradients of elements and the activity of their ions are determined for different organs of maize. The ionic state and the state of water in cells of maize stem tissues are found to be dependent on the functional load. Guidelines for further studies of ionic homeostasis are drawn up to elucidate the mechanism behind the formation of rapid response systems in plants.
S.L. Mosyakin, I.A. Tymchenko
AN OVERVIEW OF RECENT TAXONOMIC AND NOMENCLATURAL CHANGES AFFECTING TAXA OF ORCHIDACEAE OCCURRING IN UKRAINE
Recent taxonomic and nomenclatural changes affecting taxa of Orchidaceae that occur in Ukraine are summarized. In particular, the following changes are discussed and explained in view of the ongoing work toward the third edition of the Red Data Book of Ukraine: (1) polyphyly of Orchis L. s. l. and transfers of some species to Anacamptis Rich. and Neotinea Rchb. f. et Poll.; (2) proposed merger of Gymnadenia R. Br. and Nigritella Rich., the identity of the species reported for the Ukrainian Carpathians (G. carpatica (Zapal.) Teppner et E. Klein), and the species status for G. densiflora (Wahlenb.) A. Dietr.; (3) current taxonomy and nomenclature of the group Himantoglossum Spreng. — Comperia K. Koch — Steveniella Schltr.; (4) proposed merger of Dactylorhiza Necker ex Nevski and Coeloglossum Hartm. and current unresolved problems in taxonomy of the D. incarnata / maculata group. From the viewpoint of phylogeneric taxonomy, the rearrangement of taxa in a polyphyletic group Orchis s. l. to form monophyletic natural genera is unavoidable, whereas in the clade Himantoglossum — Comperia — Steveniella three alternatives are acceptable (recognition of three separate genera; inclusion of the two genera, or only Comperia, in Himantoglossum s. l.). Relevant nomenclatural citations are provided for the taxa discussed. One new combination is proposed: Anacamptis coriophora (L.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon et M.W. Chase subsp. nervulosa (Sakalo) Mosyakin et Tymchenko, comb. nov.
ELODEA NUTTALLII (PLANCH.) ST. JOHN (HYDROCHARITACEAE) — NEW FOR UKRAINE SPECIES
Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John (Hydrocharitaceae), new for the Ukraine alien plants from Kaniv reservoures in Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky (Kyiv Region) is noted. The morphological pecularities and characteristic of localitet of the species are presented.
NEW LOCATIONS OF RARE SPECIESES OF THE FLORA OF VOLHYNIAN POLESYE
New locations of 9 rare species of plants have been found out during realization in 2001-2004 years of floristic researches in territory Volhynian Polesye. Among them: very rare species (Botrychium multifidum, Cladium mariscus, Liparis loeselii, Pinguicula vulgaris) have special scientific and nature protection value; other rare species, which are included in the Red Book of Ukraine (Allium ursinum, Carex umbrosa, Epipactis palustris, Listera ovata, P. chlorantha.)
TO REVISION OF MIDDLE ASIAN MATERIAL OF "TELOSCHISTES BREVIOR" COMPLEX (TELOSCHISTACEAE)
A new lichen species, namely Xanthoanaptychia kotovii S. Kondr. & I. Kudratov sp. nov. which differs from X. villosa ssp. brevior by very wide anastomosing lobes almost undifferentiated on main and terminal fragments forming rigid multi-stored network almost spherical thallus with numerous apothecia (from several Middle Asian countries, i.e. Kirghizia, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, and Afghanistan) hitherto included to "Teloschistes brevior" complex is described and illustrated. Comparative tables with taxa mentioned and Xanthoanaptychia villosa ssp. brevior and X. contortuplicata are included. Additional data on blastidious propagules of X. villosa ssp. brevior and X. contortuplicata are provided. Key to Asian representatives of the genus Xanthoanaptychia is provided.
A NEW SPECIES OF LICHENS FOR UKRAINE AND UKRAINIAN CARPATHIAN FROM CARPATHIAN BIOSPHERE RESERVE
The descriptions, locations, ecology and geography of the 3 new for Ukraine — Petractis hypoleuca (Ach.) Vezda, Placynthium lismorense (Nyl. ex Crombie) Vainio, Verrucaria funckii (Sprengel) Zahlbr. and 20 new for Ukrainian Carpathian lichen species — Absconditella delutula (Nyl.) Coppins & Kilias, Arthonia calcicola Nyl., Aspicilia moenium (Vainio) Thor & Timdal, Bagliettoa baldensis (A. Massal.) Vezda, Bacidia fuscoviridis (Anzi) Lettau, Caloplaca cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr., C. crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier, C. lithophila H. Magn., C. dalmatica (A. Massal.) Zahlbr., C. variabilis (Pers.) Mull. Arg., Fuscidea lygaea (Ach.) V. Wirth & Vezda, Gyalecta subclausa Anzi, Lepraria nivalis J.R. Laundon, Lichenothelia convexa Hensen, Opegrapha rupestris Pers., Protoblastenia calva (Dicks.) Zahlbr., Rhizocarpon lecanorinum Anders, Rinodina tunicata H. Mayrhofer & Poelt, Synalissa symphorea (Ach.) Nyl. и Verrucaria pinguicola A. Massal., which collected on the rock outcrops of the Ugolsky massive of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve are provided.
VIRGIN FORESTS AS ECOLOGICAL MODELS FOR RENATURALISATION OF SECUNDARY PHYTOCOENOSES
Estimation is given for different forms of anthropogenic effect on forest phytocoenoses due to their anthropogenic destabilization and degrease in biological diversity. Criteria for evaluation of primary forests in natural habitat are presented. Comparative ecological analysis of functional state of virgin forests and man-made phytocoenoses is conducted. Ecological principles of close-to-natural forest management and renaturalisation о f transformed forests is grounded.
CHARACTERISTIC CHANGES OF BASE ATTRIBUTES OF VIABILITY SOLDANELLA HUNGARICA SIMONK. (PRIMULACEAE) IN NATURAL ECOTONES CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS
In natural ecotone on border of wood and subalpine zones of Carpathian mountains characteristic changes demographic, vitality and phenetics structures of populations Soldanella hungarica Simonk. (Primulaceae) are investigated. It is established, that in existing conditions in ecotones true populations S. hungaricа are not formed. It only settlements of individuals representing wood and meadow ecotypes. For similar specific formations in ecotones the term "populatones" is offered.
THE STRUCTURE OF POPULATIONS, WHICH DOMINANT IN GROUND LAYER OF WOODY PHYTOCOENOSIS AT NATURAL PARK DESNYANSKO-STAROGUTSKY. VITALITY STRUCTURE
The productive process, morphogenesis and viability of eight species of plants in a ground layer of 27 woody phytocoenosis are investigated. The parameters of vitality spectrum of populations are calculated. Has appeared, that from 27 considered populations of plants prospering there were 5 populations, equilibrium — 12 and depressive — 10. The results of vitality analysis of plant populations have independent meaning and do not duplicate the analysis of age structure of populations. Is established an coenotic optimum of the investigated species of plants.
THE MEADOW GRASS-STAND VERTICAL STRUCTURE IN CONDITIONS OF GRAZING AND HAYMAKING LOADS
The selective influence of grazing and haymaking to main botanical groups (grasses, legumes and herbs) of meadow grass-stand was studied. The grass-stand changing along grazing gradients it is doing not only decreasing of grass-stand general production and high. Besides grazing leads to meadow vertical structure transformation with the displacements of general phytomass to the low layer (0—5 cm). This lowers the production of pastures lowing green mass access for animals and for hay storage when the contents of protein are lowed.
ECOLOGO — COENOTICAL PECULIARITIES OF POPULATIONS DAPHNE TAURICA KOTOV
Realization of ecologo-coenotical and population researches is important step to preservation of a biodiversity. Thus we have analysed coenotical, ecological and population peculiarites Daphne taurica on a temporary gradient. Such analysis shows us that the population of these plants gradually move to disappearance. The basic reason of such dynamics is influence of the man on an environment.
THE TIMBER VEGETATION OF SHOSTKA GEOOBOTANICAL AREA (SUMY REGION)
The geobotanical characteristic of timber vegetation of Shostka geobotanical area which is in the north-eastern part of the Ukrainian Polissya is given in the article as well as the characteristic of woods in the above-menaoned area from the point of view of their soils flora and rarety. Old native pine forests (Pineta hylocomiosa and Pineta myrtillosa, Querceto-Pineta corylosa and Querceto corylosa) typical for the Ukrainian Polissya and registered to the "Zelena Knyga" of Ukraine are also described. Among the vegetation of above-said area 3 species belong to the Supplement I of Bern' Convention, 14 ones are registered to the "Chervona Knyga" of Ukraine and 26 species are protected in Sumy Region.
THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ACER PLATANOIDES L., A. CAMPESTRE L., A. TATARICUM L. IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS UNDER THE DIFFERENT LIGHT REGIMES
The comparative analysis of pigment content and functional state of photosynthetic apparatus of the Acer campestre L., A. platanoides L. and A. tataricum L. grown in natural environments under different light regimes. The differences in content of chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids, pigment ratio, chlorophyll fluorescence induction parameters: maximum quantum efficiency of photochemical reactions of photosystem II (PSII), Fv/Fm, effective quantum efficiency of photochemical reactions of photosystem II (PSII), F'v/F'm, photochemical, qP, and nonphotochemical, qN, quenching, quantum yield of electron transport, f PSII, have been established. Increase in the total pigment content in shade-grown maple trees provides light energy capture on the level required for effective photosynthesis, growth, development and successful competition under the canopy. The effective functioning of photosynthetic apparatus of shade-grown maple trees is confirmed by higher qP, F'v/F'm and f PSII values at the actinic light intensity similar to growth one. Higher physiological plasticity provides the possibilities for existence of maples in conditions of high insolation and under the canopy as well.
TO THE QUESTION OF THE NATIONAL GREEN BOOK
The problem of the main levels and stages of living systems with connected biotic diversity and its protection is considered. It is pointed out that the Green Book of rare phytocoenoses has a narrow-disciplinary importance. According to European sozological standards Red Books play a normative-legal role for conservation of the prime (rare) species on the European level, whereas lists and complex characteristics of the habitats — for communities.
The objects characterized in the National Ukrainian Green Book should be a prime (rare) habitats as complex living systems, where in history-genetical and structure-functional sense biocoenosis (plant, animal, fungial and microbal blocks) is joined with the ecotope as an environment of its existence. Integration of the habitats with their protective and buffer zones is the basis for delimitation of protected area units for conservation of ecosystem and population diversity.
WHAT THE GREEN BOOK OF UKRAINE HAS TO BE?
The analysis of the recent publications dedicated to the new edition of the Green book of Ukraine in given. The mathematical approaches to calculation of synphytoindicational index (SPhI) are critically revised. It is shown that the accuracy of the applied coefficients is not sufficient enough because the corresponded diagnostic features were not calculated independently. As a result, many of endangered vegetation communities were not included in the new edition of the Green book. It is proposed not to follow blindly the orthodox principles of dominant classification and include in the Green book the rare phytocenons of rocky and sandy habitats etc., which are already protected in Western Europe.
THE GREEN DATA BOOK OF UKRAINE: DISCUSSION PROBLEMS AND REALITY
Because of need to publish the Green Data Book of Ukraine as the state document the discussion about principles, methods and approaches to its creation, structure and contents is launched in scientific literature. It is substantiated that at the first stage of edition of the Green Data Book of Ukraine the principles of dominant classification are used. Replies and critical remarks to the author address in view of the methodical approaches for allocation rare associations are considered in detail.
WHAT IS BIOTIC AND LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY?
Depending on the approaches, methods, means and applied goals of demands, it is reasonable to distinguish three categories of biotic diversity: general (integral), disciplinary (objective), and productive (applied). According to the program goals of The Rio de Janeiro UN Conference, productive diversity includes three kinds: species (organism, individual), population and ecosystem diversity. Landscape diversity is subdivided into two categories: geographical (traditionally landscape) and scenery (humanistic) diversity, which corresponds to the definition of the Pan-European Strategy for Conservation of Biological and Landscape Diversity and is in harmony with the programs of conservation of the rare, unique and important habitats or ecosystems as well as with the formation of the ecological network.
A MAP OF VEGETATION OF HORHANY NATURE RESERVE AS A BASIS OF PHYTOCOENOTIC MONITORING
The map of vegetation of Horhany Nature Reserve has been charted for the first time. A legend of the vegetation map consists of 21 numbers. It is based on ecologo-phytocoenotic classification, its transformation into the legend is made on the basis of the typological principle. General botanical and geographical information about main syntaxa of vegetation in the studied area, their connection with main environmental factors are represented. It is concluded that the vegetation is syntaxonomically diverse, slightly disrupted, with predominance of phytocoenoses of formation Piceeta abietis. The proposed geobotanical map with the explanation text is the most detailed survey map of vegetation of Horhany Nature Reserve and would be used as a basis of monitoring of its reserve-caused changes.
ECOLOGICAL NICHES OF UKRAINIAN FEATHER - GRASSES: DIFFERENTIATION, STRUCTURE, LIMITING FACTORS
The multiparameter model of ecological niche remained a non-working concept for a long time. Application of exponent measure (De) enabled us to calculate the niches overlap due to several parameters (ecological factors) avoiding the violation of the main principles of the concept. Differentiation of econiches of some Ukrainian feather-grasses (Stipa L.) has proved that their environmental organization is more complicated than linear species dispersion through the factors' gradient and depends on principals of structural relations, according to which only the ecological factors values combinations with highest probability could be realized in nature. The current study presents an analysis of 42 econiches grouped in tendencial and factorial series. Furthermore, specificity, overlap and ecological factors' values distribution are characterized. Carbonate richness and humidity series turned out to be the most complete for some species. The limiting capacity of factors was found to be often not dependent on their extreme values and could change within the niche series being the evidence of the complex system organization of the environment.
THE POPULATION STRUCTURE OF NYMPHAEA CANDIDA J. et C. PRESL IN THE DRAINAGE — BASIN OF THE DESNA RIVER IN THE NORTHEAST OF UKRAINE
A complex populational analysis of N. candida was carried out. Density, quantity, age and vital structure of populations of the species in the region were investigated. The dependence of an index of quality of populations on the depth of water in places of growth was determined. Optimum ecological conditions for growth of N. candida in the region have been identified.
PHYLOGENETIC SIGNIFICANCE OF PALYNOMORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FAMILY CHENOPODIACEAE VENT.
Palynomorphological peculiarities of representatives of the family Chenopodiaceae are analyzed and discussed from the viewpoint of the newly emerging phylogenetic scheme for the family based on morphological, phytogeographical and molecular data. The new phylogenetic concepts of main groups within the family correlate sufficiently well with palynomorphological data. For example, we were able to confirm with data of pollen morphology some phylogenetic concepts (the isolated and probably basal positions of tribes Polycnemeae and Beteae; relationships of the tribe pairs Suaedeae — Salicornieae, Salsoleae — Camphorosmeae etc.). Some taxonomic groups and phylogenetic clades of Chenopodiaceae (mostly those of the tribe level, less commonly genera or groups of related genera) are characterized by specific palynomorphological trends of complexes of characters. Palynomorphological characters in Chenopodiaceae can be used for taxonomy only as additional evidence, in combination with other characters and approaches. In that family, differences in pollen morphology are more important than similarities, because these similarities could be results of parallel or convergent evolution.
THE FIND OF ASPLENIUM x ALTERNIFOLIUM WULFEN IN THE UKRAINIAN STEPPE ZONE
A new location of Asplenium x alternifolium was discovered as a result of geobotanical investigations in Regional Landscape Park "Granitno-stepove Pobuzhya". It was found in a rock niche at the left bank of the Mertvovod River. This locality is unique in the Ukrainian steppe zone. This species have to be protectected and further investigated.
NEW LOCATIONS OF RARE SPECIES OF PLANTS IN THE DONETSK RIDGE AREA
During research expedition in 2001 — 2005 in the Donetsk Ridge area we found 20 new localities of 12 species of plants (Delphinium sergii Wissjul., Paeonia tenuifolia L., Cleome donetzica Tzvelev, Onosma graniticola Klokov, Scrophularia donetzica Kotov., Tulipa schrenkii Regel, Fritillaria meleagroides Patrin ex Schult. & Schult. f., Ornithogalum boucheanum (Kunth) Asch., Allium lineare L., Crocus reticulatus Steven ex Adams, Stipa dasyphylla (Czern. ex Lindem.) Trautv., S. pulcherrima K. Koch), which are listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine.
A NEW HOST PLANT OF ALBUGO CANDIDA (GMEL.: PERS.) KZE (OOMYCOTA) FROM FAMILY BRASSICACEAE
Oomycete Albugo candida (Gmel.: Pers.) Kze. was found on plant specimens from the KW Herbarium identified by M. Kotov and T. Omelchuk as E. nasturtiifolium (Poir.) O.E. Schulz ( Brassicaceae ). Analysis of morphological characters and distribution of the mentioned plant had shown its belonging to E. gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, which is a new host plant for A. candida not only in Ukraine but for the whole area of this species.
THE EFFECT OF POLYSTIMULYN K TO FLOWERING QUALITY IN FLORAL PLANTS IN THE POLLUTED ENVIRONMENT
The research has been performed into the effect of polystimulyn K in the environment polluted with emissions from an electric metallurgical plant and road transport. It has been observed that in case the soil is polluted with heavy metals elements the size of flowers and their number become less, and flowering periods are disturbed. Spraying the plants with polystimulyn K improves flowering process indices as compared to those in the control group of plants.
A В SORBTION OF HEAVY METAL IONS BY BLUE-GREEN ALGAE SPIRULINA PLATENSIS (NORDTS.) GEITL.
The results of investigations of heavy metal ions absorption (iron, zinc, copper, strontium) by intact cells and glycoproteins of the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis (Nordts.) Geitl., strain 26, have been presented in the article. It was determined that intact cells and preparations of algae glycoproteins of the experimental variant accumulated tens and hundreds times as many these elements, compared to cells and glycoproteins in the control; moreover, zinc and iron are accumulated to a higher degree. It should be noted that the degree of ions absorption of the mentioned elements by intact algae cells is higher than by glycoprotein's preparations.
INDUCTION THE HEAT- AND SALT RESISTANCE OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. PLANTLETS BY SALICYLIC ACID IN VIEW OF CHANGES OF THE PROOXIDATIVE-ANTIOXIDATIVE BALANCE
The influence of salicylic acid (SА) on heat- and salt resistance of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) plantlets has been studied. Treatment of bleached-out plantlets raised their surviving the after damage-heating and the influence of salt (NaCl) stress. The treatment by SA caused reversible decrease of catalase activity as activity of peroxidase and accumulation of peroxide compounds both in roots and propagules. After heating and salt stress, the contents of peroxide compounds in plantlets roots and propagules treated with SA was lower, and activity of catalase was higher than those in the control. Activity of peroxidase after heat and salt stresses in plantlets roots treated by SA was higher than in the control. At the same time, in the propagules after the action of stresses there was no difference in activity of peroxidase between the control and SA- processing variant. It is supposed that the "oxidative burst" caused by SA activates in the plantlets protective mechanisms, which provide proper response to the subsequent thermal and salt stresses.
CHLORODENDROPHYCEAE CLASS. NOV. (CHLOROPHYTA, VIRIDIPLANTAE) IN THE UKRAINIAN FLORA. I. THE VOLUME, PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONS AND TAXONOMICAL STATUS
The taxonomical revision of Chlorodendrales in the Ukrainian flora is presented. The nomenclature size, composition, phylogeny and taxonomical position of the Chlorodendrales within Chlorophyta, Viridiplantae are discussed. The grounds for establishing of the new classis Chlorodendrophyceae Massjuk class. nov. including one order Chlorodendrales, one family Chlorodendraceae and three genera Prasinocladus, Tetraselmis, Scherffelia, taking up the intermediate position between Prasinophyceae and Ulvophyceae — Trebouxiophyceae — Chlorophyceae (UTC) are brought, accompanied by description and Latin diagnosis of the new classis. The inproved description of the order Chlorodendrales and clue for indentification of genera are suggested.
PHYTOTROPHIC ANAMORPHIC FUNGI OF THE NOVGOROD-SIVERS'K POLISSIA
Detailed survey of phytotrophic anamorphic fungi was carried out in the Novgorod-Sivers'k Polissia (Chernihiv and Sumy regions) for the first time. Anamorphic fungi are represented by 31 species of 15 genera of Hyphomycetes and 88 species of 32 genera of Coelomycetes reported on 84 species of host plants from 67 genera of 38 families. There have been collected 96 anamorphic fungi that are new for the Novgorod-Sivers'k Polissia, 7 anamorphic fungi that are new for the Ukrainian Polissia and 6 anamorphic fungi that are new for the left bank Dnieper river region of Ukraine in 2003—2005. There are new for the Ukraine species of Alysidium resinae (Fr.) M.B. Ellis var. microsporum B. Sutton, Bactridium flavum Kunze, Choanatiara lunata DiCosmo & Nag Raj, Cytoplacosphaeria rimosa (Oudem.) Petr., Fusicladium romellianum Ondrej, Phragmocephala elliptica (Berk. & Broome) S. Hughes.
PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF MUSHROOMS FROM THE FAMILY MORCHELLACEAE (ASCOMYCETES) IN PURE CULTURE
Physiological characteristic of ten species (26 strains) from the family Morchellaceae were investigated in pure culture on agar and liquid media: (Disciotis venosa Boud., (1 str.) Мorchella angusticeps Peck., (1 str.); М. conica Pers., (3 str.); М. crassipes (Vent.) Pers., (2 str.); M. esculenta (L.) Pers., (12 str.); M. semilibera D.C. ( = Mitrohpora semilibera (DC) Lev.), (2 str.); M. spongiola Fr., (3 str.); M. steppicola Zerova, (1 str.); Verpa bochemica (1 str.); Verpa conica (Mull.) Swartz, (1 str.).
The best radial growth of mycelium was registrated at 26° С in incubation; at 4° С growth was slower, but morphology of myceliel colony was the same as at 26° С. At 34° С only some strains of Мorchella сonica, M. crassipes, M. esculenta, M. pongiola, M. steppicola did not loose their viability. In investigated species ten specific enzymatic reactions were shown, which characterize carbon, nitrogen, lipid metabolism and oxidase-reductase processes. Week reaction if at all were registrated on caseinase, xylanase and peroxidase. The data is obtained that glucose and starch are the best sources of carbon. Poor assimilation of carbon was in liquid media with lactose and xylose. The best mycelial growth was found in liquid media with organic sources of nitrogen (peptone, asparagine) and ammonium salts. It was shown that the most favorable for mycelial growth of investigated cultures was pH 5,5–6,6.
POLLEN OF CHENOPODIACEAE VENT. AS AN INDICATOR OF CHANGES OF NATURAL CONDITIONS IN UKRAINE IN THE PLEISTOCENE
The article provides an overview of results of more than 30 years of palynological studies of Pleistocene deposits in Ukraine, which include species- and genus-level identifications of Chenopodiaceae (about 50 sections). All species-level identifications of Chenopodiaceae were performed by all paleopalynologists using the identification tables of M.Kh. Monoszon . The data on species and generic identifications of the total Pleistocene flora of Chenopodiaceae in Ukraine are generalized (37 species and 17 genera). These figures indicate that about 80% of genera and 45% of species of the modern taxa of Chenopodiaceae currently occurring in Ukraine were reported as fossils. The best studied fossil floras of Chenopodiaceae are those of interstadial and stadial periods of the Early and Late Pleistocene of Ukraine. Most of the studied sections that have palynological characteristics with species - level identificatuions of Chenopodiaceae are concentrated in southern (Early Pleistocene) and western (Late Pleistocene) regions of Ukraine. Various issues related to prospects of more precise identifications for paleoecological reconstructions are discussed. Their importance for biostratigraphy of the Pleistocene is emphasized. For continuing paleopalynological studies in that direction and strengthening the confidence level of the obtained data, new combined palynomorphological studies (light and scanning electron microscopy) of Chenopodiaceae are needed.
MORPHOLOGIC PECULIARITIES OF HYBRID VERBASCUM THAPSIFORME SCHRAD. x V. NIGRUM L. OF LVIV REGION FLORA
In areas of immediate contact of their populations, natural hybridization between Verbascum thapsiforme and V. nigrum occurs. Due to this the hybrids are arising which are morphologically intermediate between their parental species by many morphological characters of their vegetative and generative organs. Besides, as to some other signs, they show their similarity both to one and to other parental species, but the degree of such similarity is different, especially it is higher to V. nigrum, than to V. thapsiforme.
RARE CENTRAL EUROPEAN SPECIES IN FLORA OF THE VOLYN PART OF UKRAINIAN POLISSIA
Distribution of rare central european species (Astrantia major L., Carex davalliana Smith., C. umbrosa Host, Cimicifuga europaea Schipcz., Daphne cneorum L., Hypericum humifusum L., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) R. Br. etc.) in the volyn part of Ukrainian Polissia is shown. The breaf data on the species and their sozological status are presented. A map of new localities is given. Increase in numbers of localities of some central european species and tendency of their expansion in the eastern direction during last 10–15 years is noted.
SPRING EPHEMEROIDS ARE IN THE HARDWOOD FORESTS ON THE LEFT-BANK OF POLISSIA
Distribution, floristic composition and structure of springes ephemeroids synusiums in the hardwood forests of left-bank Polissia (Ukraine), was described. Particularies to the regularity of distribution of separate species and their participation in forming of synusiums were established. The common dominants in the synusiums are Anemone ranunculoides and Ficaria verna. More sparsity are synusiums where Corydalis cava and C. solida dominanted. The singl lokalities were discovered of the Allium ursinum, and Anemone nemorosa. The north-eastern border of distribution of Anemone nemorosa, east one of Scilla bifolia, Galanthus nivalis and western border Scilla siberica run in the region. The state of protection of hardwood forests with synusiums of springs ephemeroids was analysed.
SINPHYTOINDICATION CHARACTERISTIC OF INITIAL CONDITION OF NATURAL RESERVATION "ELANETSKY STEP"
Evaluation of habitat characteristic of natural reservation "Elanetskiy step" (Mikolaevska region, Ukraine) have been reduced. We used method of sinphytoindication, which are process in the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, and 170 geobotanical descriptions of sample plots. The initial condition of vegetation of natural reservation in 1996 were fixed by the descriptions in 1997. Characteristics of acidity (Rc), soil humidity (Hd), carbonate contents (Ca), salt contents (Tr), nitrogen contents (Nt) and climate thermic mode (Tm) and continentalogy (Kn) for 17 of more widespread vegetation associations in 1997 have been determined. High background indeses of carbonate contents have been determined by straight ordination. Regimes of humidity and climate thermic mode are contrast. Polarization of zonal-steppe and intra-zonal tree-shrub coenoses have been demonstrated by schemes. Natural limitations of percentage of forest land of antropogenic transformed landscape are conditioned by weak scrubbing processes (Сa, Tr, Rc) and common poorness of resources (Nt, Hd). Therefore, ravines and gullies with ravined forests are antropogenic rephugiumes of intra-zonal communities.
THE STATUS OF MODEL POPULATIONS DIANTHUS HYPANICUS ANDRZ. (CARYOPHYLLACEAE) IN KIROVOGRAD REGION
A case study of conditions and the structure of populations of Dianthus hypanicus Andrz. a rare species of the flora of Europe, is presented. It has been proved that the species is restricted to granite outcrops. The influence of environment can cause some changes in biological, morphological and other peculiarities of this species. Populations are usually of the normal type with the absolute maximum on generative plants. Reactions of D. hypanicus to stress situations were studid. The recommendations for protection of this species have been made.
THE ANATOMIC FEATURES OF VEGETATIVE ORGANS OF PERSICARIA AMPHIBIA (L). DELARBRE AT MODERATE WATER DEFICIENCY
The anatomic features of a structure of vegetative organs of Persicaria amphibia are investigated at moderate water deficiency. Is shown, that the water deficiency causes changes thickness of leaves, quantity of cells of mesophile and epidermis, their sizes, reduction of quantity of stoma and their area, greater development of conductive beams of a stem and leafstalk.
N.P. Massjuk, G.G. Lilitska
CHLORODENDROPHYCEAE CLASS. NOV. (CHLOROPHYTA, VIRIDIPLANTAE) IN THE UKRAINIAN FLORA. II. THE GENUS TETRASELMIS F. STEIN
The critical taxonomical revision of the genus Tetraselmis F. Stein in the Ukrainian flora is presented. The gaps in our knowledge about Tetraselmis species composition in the Ukrainian flora and about their morphological peculiarities are filled. There are nine Tetraselmis species in the Ukrainian flora, four species are cited at the first time (one as Tetraselmis sp.), three species are Ukrainian endemics, seven species are very rare ones. Clues for determination of these species and their improved descriptions are composed. The descriptions of the species are accompanied by illustrations, nomenclature citations, information about occurrence, outecology, distribution in the Ukraine and general distribution. Contrary to Chlamydomonas spp. mostly arranged for Forest natural physiographic zones at the North of the Ukraine locations of Tetraselmis spp. are concentrated at the South of the Ukraine, in the Steppe-zone and in the Black Sea. Two new nomenclature combinations (Scherffelia bichlora (H. et O. Ettl) Massjuk et Lilits. comb. nov., Scherffelia incisa (Nygaard) Massjuk et Lilits. comb. nov.) are proposed.
NEW AND RARE LICHENS SPECIES FOR LICHENOBIOTA OF UKRAINE
Нуросепотусе friesii (Leighton ex Nyl.) P. James & Schneider and Pyrenopsis cf. grumulifera Nyl. are recorded for the first time for Ukraine. New sites of rare species: Pachyphiale fagicola (Hepp) Zwackh., Chaenotheca laevigata Nбdv., Gyalecta truncigena (Ach.) Hepp, Dimerella pineti (Schrad. ex Ach.) Vмzda, Macentina dictyospora A. Orange, Rinodina milvina (Wahlenb) Th. Fr. are reported. The data on ecology and geographical distribution are given for each species.
ANAMORPHIC FUNGI IN PLANT COMMUNITIES OF THE NOVGOROD-SIVERS'K POLISSIA
Plant-inhabited anamorphic fungi allocation in plant communities of the Novgorod-Sivers'k Polissia was studied. It was analyzed distribution of 119 species of 47 genera in oak-pine and pine forests, oak, oak-maple, lime-oak woods, birch and alder forests, protective afforestations, osier-beds and water-plant communities, water-logged grounds, meadows and cultivated plants communities. Anamorphic fungi that are herbo- and phyllotrophic hemibiotrops are more characteristic for the Novgorod-Sivers'k Polissia. Some saprotrophs wide distribution is caused by the climate of the region. It is discussed diversity of the listed 60 anamorphic fungi in the nature-protected territories of the Novgorod-Sivers'k Polissia. There are collected 24 anamorphic fungi in the Desnians'ko-Staroguts'ky national nature park and 36 anamorphic fungi in the Mesyns'ky national nature park.
MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF LEVEILLULA HELICHRYSI HELUTA ET SIMONIAN (ERYSIPHALES), AND ITS PLACE IN THE SYSTHEM OF THE GENUS
Information about the first record of Leveillula helichrysi Heluta et Simonian anamorph in Ukraine is presented. Expanded description of this species including surface features obtained using scanning electronic microscope is given. It is supposed that L. helichrysi could be basal in genus Leveillula G. Arnaud and is an intermediate species between subgenera Leveillula and Obtusispora Heluta et Simonian.
PALYNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENEOLITHIC DEPOSITS FROM THE RAZDOL'NE MULTILAYER SETTLEMENT SITE (DONETSK REGION, UKRAINE)
Results of integral spore-pollen, archaeological and radiocarbon studies of deposits of Razdol'ne settlement are provided. The general composition of the fossil palynoflora from the Eneolithic deposits is determined. It contains 84 taxa identified with precision of different ranks (2 orders, 27 families, 15 genera, and 40 species). The conclusion is made that accumulation of the Early Eneolithic cultural layer occurred within 5900–5400 BP. On the basis of results of spore-pollen researches, the pattern of natural and human-induced changes in the structure of vegetation that surrounded the Razdol'ne site (left bank of the Dnieper in the steppe zone) in the second half of the Atlantic period of the Holocene (AT-3), is reconstructed. The results of the complex archaeological and palynological research testify that the basis of economy of the Eneolithic Sredny Stog culture were cattle-breeding and crop farming.
MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES POLLEN GRAINS OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS PLANTAGO L. s.l. (PLANTAGINACEAE JUSS. s.str.) IN THE UKRAINIAN FLORA
Results of palynomorphological investigations of 14 species of Plantago of the flora of Ukraine are reported. The study was performed using light and scanning electron microscopy. For pollen grains, a complex spinulose-tuberculate sculpture is characteristic, which consist of sculptural elements (spinules) and structural elements (tubercles). It is shown that the genus Plantago is heterogeneous by sporoderm constitution of pollen grains. The diagnostic features of pollen grains of particular species or groups of species are the sculpture of the mesoporium surface, structure of pore membranes, presence of annulus, size of pollen, and number of pores. The revealed palynomorphological characters can be used for solving problems in systematics, and also for identification of fossil pollen of Plantago species for spore-pollen analysis.
CHARACTERIZATION OF ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE LEAF SURFACE IN SPECIES OF THE GENUS LINUM L. IN THE UKRAINIAN FLORA
For the first time the surface ultrastructure of leaf epidermis of 23 species of the genus Linum in the flora of Ukraine was studied using SEM. Both common (amphystomatic features, longitudinal arrangement of stomata, crystalloid and crusts types of wax deposits; paracytic type of stomata) and specific characteristics of the leaf ultrastructure of the studied species have been revealed. Most of them are additional diagnostic characters on the sectional level (surface relief type, spatial alignment of wax crystalloids) and the species level (surface relief type, presence and type of trichomes, presence and type of wax crystalloids, arrangement of stomata relative to the level of basal epidermal cells, and shape of wax platelets).
STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND CONTACT SEPARATION FORCE OF THE HOOKS COVERING THE FRUIT SURFACE IN GALIUM APARINE L.
Diaspores (seeds and fruits) of many flowering plants are adapted to dispersal by mechanical interlocking to animal fur and feathers (epizoochory). In this study, the morphology and the attachment force of the fruit hooks of Galium aparine plants are presented. Using light and scanning electron microscopy, it is found that the hook consists of two parts, a joint-like base and a hooked cone. The latter originates from the outer layer of the pericarp and may be considered as a modified hollow unicellular trichome. Staining of resin-embedded semithin sections with safranin and fast green shows that the hook wall contains cellulose and lignin. The force ranges from 9.37 to 44.89 mN (x=23.23, SD=8.13, n=50) and depends on the hook size. To calculate the Young's modulus, a mathematical model describing the effect of the complex hook geometry was applied. The hooks with and without the base are characterised by different values of the elastic moduli: 2.02 GPa and 23.20 GPa, respectively. Experimental data show that jointed hooks are better adapted to resist forces in different directions compared with non-jointed hooks. This effect is not present in many other plant hooks and is also unknown in industrial hook-and-loop fasteners.
PHYTOHORMONES OF ZEA MAYS L. SEEDLINGS AXIAL ORGANS DURING HETEROTROPHIC PERIOD OF GROWTH
Morphological and physiological characteristics (sizes, growth rate, cell division zones length) and endogenous phytohormones levels of Zea mays L. seedlings axial organs during heterotrophic period of growth (2–4 d of germination) were studied by HPLC, bioassays and microscopy methods. Root, mesocotyl and bud development was accompanied by growth zones formation. The last one of root and mesocotyle completed to 72 h of germination. Mesocotyle growth is limited in time and terminated after light perception. The highest growth rate was detected in roots at the beginning of germination — 1.1 m/h. The content of ABA, IAA, cytokinins and gibberellin-like substances (GLS) was different in axial organs. GLS prevailed in mesocotyle and bud, IAA accumulated in mesocotyle of 4-d seedlings, the highest level of cytokinins was determined in roots. ABA content was not essential but it increased as far as growth zones lengthened.
INFLUENCE ОF SALICYLIC ACID AND PHYTOHORMONS ON THERMAL RESISTANCE OF COTYLEDONS OF CUCUMIS SATIVUS L. IN CONNECTION WITH PROOXIDATIVE-ANTIOXIDATIVE BALANCE SHIFTS
The influence of exogenous of salicylic acid (SA) tease of abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin (kinetin) on thermal resistance of Cucumis sativus L. isolated cotyledons was studied. Pre treatment with all these three compounds (10-6 m) raised thequantity of cotyledons survived after 10-minutes heating at 470 С. Thus after 24 h treatment of cotyledons by SA and ABA raised the total contents of peroxide compounds in them, white the influence of kinetin reduced this index. After 24 h heating in the cotyledons treated by SA, ABA and kinetin the contents of peroxide compounds was notably less, than in the control. Antioxidant ionol (9x10-6 m ) reduced the quantity of peroxide compounds in cotyledons both before and after heating raising the percentage of the survived cotyledons. However, the influence of ionol on surviving distinctly conceded to the effects of SA and ABA. The antioxidant supressed accumulation of peroxide compounds induced by SA and ABA in cotyledons and reduced of SA and ABA protective activities at damaging heating. A conclusion is made as for necessity of reactive oxygen species formation for SA and ABA protective effects realization.
ANALYSIS OF GENETIC RELATION OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. AND PINUS SYLVESTRIS VAR. CRETACEA KALENICZ. ex КOM. IN UKRAINE
Comparative analysis of genetic structure of relict populations of Pinus sylvestris L. and P. sylvestris var. cretacea Kalenicz. ex Kom. has been conducted in Ternopol and Donetsk regions respectively on the basis of variation of 19 allozyme loci as well as their seed progenies and pool of paternal gametes at 10 loci. These relict populations were determined to be closer genetic relationship then P. sylvestris var. сretacea and P. sylvestris populations in their total area in the south-east of Ukraine. In seed embryos of relict populations of the both taxons, allele diversity peculiar to maternal plants is maintained.