I.V. Stonik, N.A. Aizdaicher
STUDIES ON MORPHOLOGY OF SPECIES FROM THE GENUS PYRAMIMONAS SCHMARDA (PRASINOPHYCEAE) NEW FOR THE FAR EASTERN SEAS OF RUSSIA
When studying phytoplankton of Peter the Great Bay (East Sea / Sea of Japan), two species from the genus Pyramimonas Schmarda (Prasinophyceae) – P. aff. cordata McFadden, Hill et Wetherbee and P. aurita Daugbjerg et Moestrup, new for the Far Eastern seas of Russia, were revealed. Peculiarities in morphology of their submicroscopic superficial squamules were examined by the method of "shadow-cast electron microscopy". Morphological descriptions of the mentioned species obtained by the data of light and electron microscopy and also original microphotographs are presented.
PHOTOMOVEMENT OF ALGAE: A COMPARATIVE TAXONOMIC ASPECT
Issues of terminology concerning the photomovement of freely motile microorganisms and preliminary results of studying photomovement of cells in hyperhalobic species of Dunaliella Teod. (Dunaliellales, Chlorophyceae, Viridiplantae) in comparison with photomovement peculiarities of other flagellate algae, representatives of other taxa (genera, orders, classes, kingdoms of the organic world) are discussed. It is shown that with an increase in phylogenetic distance between taxa the distinctions in their photobehavior, structure, and mechanisms of functioning in photoreception systems become deeper, during the process of sensory transformation of a light signal to motile reactions of different types, in the activity of the flagellar apparatus. Therefore, data on features of photomovement of algae are of interest as additional differential criteria are described in evolutionary biology, phylogenetics, systematics, and taxonomy of algae. Along with distinctions, we also noted some common fundamental features in photomovement processes and their photoregulation in flagellates; these features do not depend on taxonomic positions of the studied organisms. The importance of photobiological researches of photomovement of algae in adjacent fields of science is discussed: ecology (including autecology), geography of algae, applied phycology, in particular, biotechnology, and environmental biomonitoring.
ABSORPTION OF MINERAL ELEMENTS BY LAURENCIA PAPILLOSA (FORSK.) GREV. (RHODOPHYTA) IN THE PROCESS OF ITS GROWTH
The biomass formation of the Black Sea red macroalga Laurencia papillosa (Forsk.) Grev. (Rhodophyta) and rates of nitrogen and phosphorus absorption by its thalli are estimated during of growth in the accumulative culture. It has been shown that accumulation of biomass at a temperature of 15.5о С is more intensive than at 21.5о С. Dynamics of the phosphorus and nitrogen concentration in the medium is of exponential character. The temperature factor exerts no action on the process of phosphorus absorption within the ranges of high concentrations and also on the specific rate of nitrite excretion into the medium. During the first hour of exposure, nitric nitrogen is absorbed more intensively at a temperature of 21.5о С than at 15.5о С.
SPOROPOLLENIN IN CELL ENVELOPES OF DUNALIELLA SALINA TEOD. ZYGOTES
In the envelopes of zygotes formed by laboratory culture of Dunaliella salina Teod. acetolysis-resistant polymer sporopollenin was recorded. Authors discuss function of b-carotene accumulating in lipid- carotenoid globules in the cells of this alga as the possible predictor of the material of the cell envelopes of zygotes.
THE MODES OF GLUCOSE ACTION ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS (NORDST.) GEITL. (CYANOPHYTA)
The effects of a) glucose, b) mannose and 2-deoxyglucose (glucose analogues capable of triggering hexokinase-mediated photosynthesis repression) and c) sodium citrate on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis (Nordst.) Geitl. were investigated. The addition of glucose evoked, at first, the lowering of all photochemical fluorescence quenching parameters (FV /FM, FV'/FM', qP and FPS II). The decrease correlated with glucose concentration. The inhibition of photochemical activity relaxed on third day of the experiment, perhaps, as the consequence of glucose utilization. If the concentration of glucose in the cultural medium was high enough (50 mM), on the seventh day all the indices of photochemical quenching began to diminish again, at which time qP reduction was more significant than that for FV'/FM'. The relief of glucose repressive effects was light-dependent. Glucose analogues caused the decrease in only one photochemical quenching parameter, qP. Unlike mannose, the effect of 2-deoxyglucose was more pronounced and did not weaken till the end of experiments. Nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching parameters (qN and NPQ) were also reduced under monosaccharide treatment. The influence of sodium citrate on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters was negligible. Therefore, the multiplicity of glucose effects in the course of inhibition of S. platensis Photosystem II activity was demonstrated, while hexokinase-dependent repression mechanism was playing only a partial role and resulting in the blocking of electron flow from Photosystem II reaction centers down the electron transport chain.
СONTRIBUTION OF DOMINANT SPECIES OF GENUS CYMBELLA AG. (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN MICROPHYTOBENTHOS OF SOUTHERN BAIKAL
Long-term data on studies of the genus Cymbella in the littoral zone of Lake Baikal are discussed in the paper. Morphological characteristics of dominant representatives have been described. The role of the genus species in processes of the littoral zone has been estimated. Peculiarities of zonal distribution, seasonal and interannual dynamics and the role of these representatives in microphytobenthos communities are under discussion. Some characteristics of ecology of the genus species are described on the basis of long-term observations.
PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE TETEREV RIVER (UKRAINE) UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF HETEROGENEITY OF RIVER FLOW FORMATION
The paper deals with the results of original studies of the phytoplankton taxonomical diversity in the Teterev River from the upper riaches to the flowing into the Kiev Reservoir, including the regulated river sites and some of the tributaries. Totally 309 species have been identified, represented by 355 infraspecies taxa including the nomenclature type pf species. In general, the river phytoplankton is dominated by greens, diatoms and euglenophytes with the considerable part of blue-green algae. The high species diversity of the phytoplankton in the Teterev River is caused by heterogeneity of the river flow formation.
SPECIES COMPOSITION OF ALGAE OF THE RESERVOIRS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DNIPROVSKO-ORILSKY NATURAL RESERVE (UKRAINE)
Species composition of algae of water bodies of Dniprovsko-Orilsky Natural Reserve numbers 670 species represented by 745 taxa of infraspecies rank (including those containing nomenclature type of species). It is characterized by leading role of Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta и Euglenophyta. Distribution of species diversity in types and groups of water bodies was irregular: Bacillariophyta dominated in flowing reservoirs (pointed shape of stellar diagram), Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta in equal shares prevailed in flood-lands water bodies with sufficient influence of the Dnieper (trapezoid shape of stellar diagram), and dominance of Chlorophyta with considerable presence of representatives of Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta and Euglenophyta were recorded in water bodies without or with minor influence of the Dnieper (pentagonal shape of stellar diagram).
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHLOROPHYTA OF WATER BODIES OF DONETSKO-PRIAZOVSKY STEPPE (UKRAINE)
Diversity of Chlorophyta of the water bodies of Donetsko-Priazovsky Steppe and it peculiarities are discussed. Totally 541 species (607 infraspecies taxa) belonging to 164 genera, 55 families, 22 orders and 8 classes were revealed. Such classes as Chlorophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae form main part of the diversity of Chlorophyta of studied region. Decrease of species richness of Chlorophyta in water bodies of the region from north to south was registered. Peculiarities of infraspecies composition of Chlorophyta of different types of water bodies are analyzed. Flood - lands of the Siversky Donets is the centre of diversity of green algae of the studied area. Sufficient geographical differentiation of Chlorophyta of different physiographical regions of Donetsko-Priazovsky Steppe is shown. Connections of Chlorophyta of the water bodies of Donetsko-Priazovsky Steppe with those of Steppe zone of Ukraine are demonstrated. 32 species (41 infraspecies taxa) are first cited for Ukraine, and 107 (126) are new for Steppe zone of Ukraine.
L.A. Gaisina & R.R. Kabirov
MORPHOMETRIC VARIABILITY OF XANTHONEMA EXILE (KLEBS) SILVA (XANTHOPHYTA) FROM BASHKIR PREURAL REGION (RUSSIA)
Morphological variability of Xanthonema exile (Klebs) Silva was studied under natural and cultural conditions. In 23 studied populations the length of filaments and linear dimensions of cells varied in a wide range. Length of filaments was the most variable feature; the width of cells was the least variable.
TO STUDY OF DEVELOPMENT OF MORPHOLOGY OF AULACOSEIRA ISLANDICA (O. MULLER) SIMONSEN (BACILLARIOPHYTA)
Development of the species Aulacoseira islandica (O. Muller) Simonsen in Khanka Lake and the Amur River was studied. Simultaneous formation of auxospores and resting spores in the same colony was shown. Microscopic study of the frustules and comparison with non spore-forming A. islandica from North America and Europe, A. skvortzowii Edlund, Stoermer & Taylor from Lake Baikal, A. pseudoislandica Lupikina & Ozornina from Pleistocene deposits of Kamchatka was carried out. It was found that A. islandica in position and shape of bilabiate growths is most similar to A. pseudoislandica.
DOMINATING SPECIES OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN THE RIVERS OF VARIOUS PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS (OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION)
Literature data concerning phytoplankton rivers of the former Soviet Union were analyzed to describe dominating species of algae for different groups and types of currents. Phytoplankton of rivers and lakes was compared.
MACROPHYTOBENTHOS OF THE LITTORAL ECOTONE OF BALAKLAVA BAY (THE BLACK SEA, UKRAINE)
Ecologic and taxonomic composition of summer algoflora of the marine littoral of Balaklava Bay (the Black Sea) have been studied for the first time. Peculiarities of quantitative development of benthic phytocenoses are revealed. Taxonomic composition of studied flora turned to be poor. Main components of ecological structure are mesosaprobionts, marine, seasonal, annual and leading groups. Phytocenoses of Balaklava Bay are spatially heterogeneous, its degree changes in years. Low quantitative development of oligosaprobionts, poor composition of brown algae, predominance of species with short life cycle and low frequency testify strong eutrophication of the bay area. On the basis of study of variability of plant communities in different years their stable and labile features are found.
CHANGES IN EPIPHYTON OF THE USOLKA RIVER (BASHKORTOSTAN, RUSSIA) ALONG A GRADIENT OF SALINITY
The species composition of epiphytic algae, quantitative indices of their development, and regularities of their distribution in the Usolka River along a gradient of salinity were investigated. A total of 105 species of algae of 5 divisions was found in epiphyton in the river. Their ecological and geographic characteristics, as well as seasonal succession of their species composition were investigated. The structure of algae communities was studied in the sections of the river differing in the degree of their salinity.
SYNTAXONOMY OF COMMUNITIES OF SOIL ALGAE IN THE SOUTHERN URAL. 3. CLASS BRACTEACOCCO–HANTZSCHIETEA AMPHIOXYOS CLASS NOVA
The new class Bracteacocco-Hantzschietea is described; this class unites algal communities (algocenoses) of urbanized ecosystems and adjacent areas. Widespread ubiquitous species prevail in the floristic composition of algal communities of the class. Zonal peculiarities are evident at the level of orders Cylindrospermetalia licheniformis and Phormidio-Oscillatorietalia representing communities of the forest and steppe zones. Convergence of the floristic structure of two regional floras of settlements of different climatic zones occurred as a result of synanthropization due to penetration of species of anthropically disturbed habitats. In the forest zone the algal communities were characterized by a more mosaic structure under the influence of microrelief, the herbaceous and moss cover, and trees and shrubs. In steppe and meadow communities the conditions for occurrence of algae are more uniform and, hence, the diagnostic areas of algal cenoses are larger.
THE PECULIARITIES OF THE STRUCTURE OF PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES IN THE SEA AZOV BASIN SALINITY GRADIENT AREAS
Data on taxonomic composition and spatial distribution of the phytoplankton community abundance and biomass from the frontal areas of the Sea Azov and adjacent waters are submitted. Abrupt fall in species number and quantitative indices was observed in high salinity gradient regions such as Kerchensky Strait and the Taganrogsky Bay estuary (in comparison with nearby waters). Considerable difference in qualitative structure of the community of pelagic microalgae from the different parts of studied area was demonstrated. From the Don river mouth towards the Black Sea freshwater species are naturally supplanted by marine forms. But special attention should be devoted to the fact that phytoplankton community undergoes such changes just while passing through salinity gradient areas, as the last are playing the role of biological barriers.
TAXONOMIC COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF RED ALGAE (RHODOPHYTA , RHODOPHYCEAE) OF THE BLACK SEA
The annotated list of Rhodophyta (excl. order Ceramiales), subjected to recent taxonomic revisions and nomenclature changes, is presented. It includes 102 species with 125 infraspecies taxa, related to 49 genera, 24 families, and 16 orders. In comparison to monographic reports published from 1975 to 2000, 32 species are new for the Black Sea flora. The richest species diversity of Rhodophyta is recorded along the coast of Turkey (76 species and 98 infraspecies taxa) and the Ukraine (67 species and 81 infraspecies taxa). Factors affecting the distribution of new, mainly warm-water species in the Black Sea basin are discussed. B. Zarei Bacillariophyta of water bodies of Iran Data on diatomic algae (Bacillariophyta) of Iran water bodies are presented. In polytypic water bodies it is revealed and identified 479 species represented by 612 infraspecific taxa belonging to 2 orders, 3 suborders, 9 families and 48 genera. At that 217 species, 303 infraspecific taxa are new to algal flora of Iran.
BACILLARIOPHYTA OF WATER BODIES OF IRAN
Data on diatomic algae (Bacillariophyta) of Iran water bodies are presented. In polytypic water bodies it is revealed and identified 479 species represented by 612 infraspecific taxa belonging to 2 orders, 3 suborders, 9 families and 48 genera. At that 217 species, 303 infraspecific taxa are new to algal flora of Iran.
MORPHOLOGY OF NEW FOSSIL SPECIES OF CONCENTRODISCUS AND ALVEOLOPHORA (BACILLARIOPHYTA) FROM BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF LAKE BAIKAL
Two new species of the genus Concentrodiscus Khursevich, Moisseeva & Sukhova and one new species of the genus Alveolophora Moisseeva & Nevretdinova studied with light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been distinguished from the Upper Miocene sediments of the BDP-98 core, Lake Baikal. C. subabnormis Khursevich & Fedenya is characterized by a variable location of a single rimoportula on the valve surface and the absence of valve face fultoportulae. C. proteus Khursevich & Fedenya is distinguished by the constant placement of a single rimoportula near the valve centre and a variable position of valve face fultoportulae. In addition, the description of C. indigenus Khursevich & Fedenya is defined more precisely. The new species of Alveolophora baicalensis Khursevich & Fedenya is characterized by the formation of both straight and curved along the central axis valves, as well as by a considerable number of pseudoseptae on the valve mantle. A.F. Krakhmalny, S.P. Wasser,& E. NevoNew for Israel genus Durinskia Carty et Cox (Dinophyta) Durinskia baltica (Levander) Carty et Cox, new for Israeli flora genus and species of dinophytes was revealed in fishponds of northern Israel. Samples were investigated using the SEM method. It is the first record of this taxon in continental water bodies of Asia. This research describe the history of study, taxonomic position of D. baltica, and the morphological peculiarities in the Israeli populations.
NEW FOR ISRAEL GENUS DURINSKIA CARTY ET COX (DINOPHYTA)
Durinskia baltica (Levander) Carty et Cox, new for Israeli flora genus and species of dinophytes was revealed in fishponds of northern Israel. Samples were investigated using the SEM method. It is the first record of this taxon in continental water bodies of Asia. This research describe the history of study, taxonomic position of D. baltica, and the morphological peculiarities in the Israeli populations.
NEW TAXONOMICAL COMBINATIONS IN SOME GENERA OF BACILLARIOPHYTA
Seven new taxonomical combinations are proposed, four combinations – for the genus Ulnaria (Kutz.) Compere and three other ones – for Neosynedra Williams et Round, Astartiella Witkowki, Lange-Bertalot et Metzeltin and Lemnicola Round et Basson because of Ukrainian diatom flora arrangement.
INFLUENCE OF ADAPTATION, CULTIVATION AND EPIPHYTES SUPRESSION REGIMES ON GROWTH BLACKSEA RED WEED GELIDIUM LATIFOLIUM (GREV.) BORN. ET THUR. (RHODOPHYTA)
Results of experiments on the Blacksea red weed's Gelidium latifolium (Grev.) Born. et Thur. intensive cultivation by two methods of epiphytes suppression (impulsive feeding and drainage) have been presented. It has been shown, that combination of impulsive feeding (2 hours once in 2 days by СN = 1500 µM, СP = 120 µM) and preliminary 30 minutes drainage were the most preferable. Increase of temperature in the limit of their supposed optima (from 15 to 20-250 C) unconsiderably influenced average specific daily rate of biomass's growth (µ). At the same time, variation of lighting from 55 to 70 W/m2 and concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus (N/P) from 260/20 to 364/26 µM increases µ on 20 - 30%, but by change of preliminary adaptation conditions it was possible to increase it 1.5-2 times. It's determined, that µ by salinity 34‰ is in 1.5-2,7 more, then by 9‰, and in 1.3-1.4 more, then by normal Black See salinity.
EFFECTS OF LIGHT ILLUMINATION ALTERATION ON CHLORELLA VULGARIS BUITENZORG'S CO2 FIXATION IN BUBBLE COLUMN PHOTOBIOREACTOR
Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris Buitenzorg with alteration of light illumination using a maximum carbon dioxide transfer rate (CTR max) base curve successfully enhanced the CTR value up to 1.74 times compared to alteration of light illumination with a growth base curve. This research produced a CTR average value of 28.6 g/dm3 h. A previous research produced a CTR average value of 16.4 g/dm3·h. Both cultivations were operated under the follow conditions: T = 290 C, P = 1 Atm, UG = 2.4 m/h, CO2 = 10%; Beneck medium; 1 dm3 Bubble Column Photo bioreactor; and illumination source by a Phillip Halogen Lamp 20W /12V/ 50Hz for maximization illumination up to 50 klx. During the cultivation in this research biomass was relatively lower than in the previous research, provided that the light intensity used also narrower than the light intensity range of maximum biomass production.
THE DIATOMS OF BENTHOS OF THE RIVER SOUTHERN BUG (UKRAINE)
The diatoms of benthos of the river Southern Bug were investigated during March 1997 at October 1998. 37 genera, 23 families, 13 orders and 3 classes represented 116 species of Bacillariophyta. Majority of diatoms of investigated district was b -mezosaprobes, alcalyphyles, oligogalobes. Distribution of diatoms for the substratum depended on its chemical characteristics. The most quantity of species was observed for the silt substratum. Quantity and biomass varied in the wide ranges. The peaks of algae development were coincide with autumnal-vernal vegetation.
PHYTOMASS AND DOMINATING COMPLEX OF SPECIES IN COMMUNITIES OF LITTORAL ECOTONE OF CRIMEA Taxonomic and ecological structure of dominating complex, and peculiarities of quantitative development of benthic phytocenoses of littoral ecotone of Crimea have been studied in spatial and temporal aspects. Biomass values and limits of it variation has been estimated, and their correlation with ecotope conditions. Shares of species and divisions of algae in total biomass of littoral phytocenoses were calculated. It was shown that average biomass of red algae is sufficiently lower of those of Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Main dominants turned to be brown algae. Spatial localization of poly- and monodominating communities is shown. Seasonal dynamics of species composition of algae and quantitative development of dominants and codominants were studied. It was revealed that irrespective of the season dominants of the open areas are marine perennial oligosaprobiont algae, however in closed polluted areas subject to desalinization dominants are saltish-marine annual polysaprobionts. Coefficients of floristic resemblance shows low level of similarity of dominants in different seasons. Total biomass, as well as biomass of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta by itself in dynamic conditions of littoral shallows vary in different years. Share of biomass of dominants and co-domionants turned to be more or less stable.
MACROPHYTOBENTHOS OF ISLAND TUZLA AND ADJACENT SEA AQUATORIES (KERCH STRAIT)
Characteristic of the contemporaneous state of macrophytobenthos in water reservoirs of island Tuzla and of adjacent aquatories of Kerch strait are given. It was registrated 37 species of macrophytes: Magnoliophyta – 5, Charophyta – 1, Chlorophyta – 16, Rhodophyta – 15. Biomass of bottom vegetation in the sea is up to 2,2 kg/m2; in the inner water reservoirs which are isolated from the sea – 1,7 kg/m2; in the inner water reservoirs which have limit connection with the sea – 4,3 kg/m2. This object is situated on the cross of communication elements of the shaping National Ukrainian Econet and it is perspective for including to the structure of Nature Reserve Fond.
STRUCTURE AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF PHYTOMICROEPILITHIC ALGAE IN THE TETERIV RIVER
The paper considers the structure of the epilithic algal communities developing upon the rocky substrata in the various stretches of the river Teteriv. The temporal periodicity of chlorophyll accumulation has been studied. The samples of phytomicroepilithon were collected during the summer of 2004.
SPECIES DIVERSITY OF BENTHIC ALGAE IN WATER BODIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN REGION OF TURKEY (ERZURUM VICINITY)
This paper presents the results of a long-term research regarding the species diversity and composition of benthic algae in major bentic water bodies of the northeastern region of Turkey. The presented data cover identified 344 taxa with their occurrence. Bacillariophyta was the most numerous group with the highest number of species (215) followed by Chlorophyta (83), Cyanophyta (28), Euglenophyta (16), and Dianophyta (2). The taxonomic composition of the benthic algal flora was analyzed. The diatom taxa that grow well in slightly alkaline waters were found to be abundant in the benthic algal community.
MORPHOLOGY OF NEW FRESHWATER SPECIES OF THE GENUS ACTINOCYCLUS EHRENBERG (BACILLARIOPHYTA) FROM THE UPPER MIOCENE SEDIMENTS OF LAKE BAIKAL (SIBERIA)
Four new species of the genus Actinocyclus Ehrenberg are described from the Upper Miocene sediments of the BDP-98 drill core, Lake Baikal. They are distinguished by the different structure of rimoportulae, different form of spines and the density of their placement on the valve face/mantle junction. Besides the morphological peculiarities of known fossil freshwater species of Actinocyclus krasskei (Krasske) Bradbury & Krebs are marked.
TOWARDS A METHOD OF EXTRACTING MICROPHYTOFOSSILS FROM SANDY-ARGILLACEOUS SEDIMENTS
A method of extracting microphytofossils from Paleogene sandy-argillaceous sediments is proposed. The method allows to fasten and simplify laboratory processing of samples and requires less chemicals.
A.F. Krakhmalny, M.A. Gololobova & M.A. Krakhmalny
MORPHOLOGY OF PERIDINIUM GATUNANSE NYG. (DINOPHITA) FROM LAKE EL PADRE (MEXICO)
The dinophytic species Peridinium gatunense Nyg., new for continental water bodies of Mexico, was found in Lake El Padre (Central America, the Yukatan Peninsula). The thecal micromorphology of this species was studied by scanning microscopy. Problems on geographical variability of morphological characters are under discussion. The paper is illustrated by microphotographs.
THE SUMMER-AUTUMN PHYTOPLANKTON IN THE GOLDEN HORN BAY (THE SEA OF JAPAN) UNDER CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION
The qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton in the Golden Horn Bay (the impact area) and in the Rynda Bay (the background area) (the Sea of Japan) was studied in the summer-autumn period of 2000. Revealed were 76 species and intraspecific taxa of microalgae. A high similarity level of species lists is observed in phytoplankton of the Golden Horn and Rynda Bays (the Serensen-Chekanovsky coefficient is equal to 0.83). In the Rynda Bay the maximal density of phytoplankton was registered in October (8.7 mln cells/L), in this case the diatomic alga Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Cl. was dominant (91.7%). In the Golden Horn Bay the maximum density of phytoplankton was registered in the area of berth 44 in June (1.7 mln cells/L), flagellate microalgae predominating (45.5%). Predominance of the flagellate community of microalgae over diatomic algae was observed in the summer-autumn period in the Golden Horn Bay (20-78% in the area of berth 42 and 24-82% in the area of berth 44). Euglenophyta (Eutreptiella gimnastica Throndsen) and Chlorophyta (Pyramimonas sp.) were the most abundant in the area of berth 44 (388 and 387 thousand cells/L, respectively), that evidences for a high level of organic pollution of the bay. On the whole, the density of dominant and subdominant species among flagellates increases in the succession of the Rynda Bay –> berth 42 –> berth 44. The maximal decrease in the Shannon species diversity index (0.2 and 0.7 information bit respectively) is observed in the Rynda Bay in August and October, that was associated with the bloom of S. сostatum. A comparison of the results of observation obtained by the phytoplankton of background and impact areas has shown that in the period of investigation the Rynda Bay (especially of its inmost area) was subject to a considerable extent to the anthropogenic influence including eutrophication and thermal pollution.
DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGY OF SANDSTONE-INHABITING ALGAE IN CASEMATES OF LUXEMBOURG
This research presents the results of a study of diversity and ecological peculiarities of algae inhabiting sandstone walls in hypogean casemates of the city of Luxembourg. A total of 59 taxa belonging to 4 divisions of algae were revealed: Cyanoprocaryota (Cyanophyta) – 15, Chlorophyta – 30, Bacillariophyta – 10, Eustigmatophyta – 2. Unicellular and filamentous chlorophytes together with filamentous cyanobacteria dominated in species composition. Culture-based observations are presented on a number of noteworthy and poorly described taxa. It was found that species composition of hypogean algae is heterogenous: each studied gallery is inhabited by several algal communities. Two ecological groups, trogloxenes and troglophiles, are represented in studied species composition. Trogloxenes make up 60% of revealed species of algae. It is shown that species composition of algae of the casemates has more in common with those of open-air sandstone substratums than with species composition of algae of lime caves.
NEW LOCALITIES OF CHARALES IN UKRAINE
New localities of eight species belonging to genera Chara L. (5), Nitella C. Agardh (2) and Nitellopsis Hy (1) are presented. Along with widely distributed species (Chara contraria A. Braun ex Kutz., Ch. fragilis Desv. in Loisel., Ch. vulgaris L.) the rare ones for Ukraine (Ch. connivens Salzm. ex A. Braun, Ch. delicatula C. Agardh, Nitella capillaris (Krock.) J. Groves et Bull. Webst., N. mucronata (A. Braun) Miq. in H.C. Hall, Nitellopsis obtusa (Desv. in Loisel.) J. Groves) have been found. A degree of vulnerability and category of preservation of the rare species are given according to the Red List of Charales of Ukraine.
NEW DATA TO THE FLORA OF DIATOM ALGAE (CENTROPHYCEAE) IN KURSHSKIY BAY OF THE BALTIC SEA
This study investigated species composition of centric diatoms in the southern part of Kurshskiy Bay of the Baltic Sea. 29 species and varieties (of diatoms) including 12 new for the flora of Kurshskiy bay of the Baltic sea and Kaliningrad region were discovered. The species list of Kurshskiy Bay was reduced by 7 taxa because some species, varieties and forms were into the same synonymy.
PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY IN SOME WATER BODIES OF KIЕV
The paper considers the phytoplankton diversity in some Kiеv water bodies: the pond on the Nivka-River, Lakes Babyne and Opechen, the Bay Sobache Gyrlo. The highest diversity of planktonic algae (species, taxonomical, informative diversity) is observed in Lake Babyne, the lowest – in Lake Opechen and the Bay Sobache Gyrlo.
ALGAE OF CERTAIN WATER BODIES OF THE RECREATIONAL ZONE OF KIEV
Papers deals with the results of study of a number of water bodies situated in the recreational zone of Kiev (Lakes Raduga and Telbin, Galerny Bay of the Dnieper, Venetian and Rusanovsky Channels, and the site of Kiev Reservoir near the dam). Totally 138 species (145 infraspecific taxa) of algae were revealed. The most diverse in terms of species composition were divisions Chlorophyta (49 species with 51 infraspecific taxa), Cyanophyta (40 species with 43 taxa) and Bacillariophyta (20 species). Cryptomonas nasuta Pascher is the new record for Ukraine . The greatest number of species was found in Lake Raduga and Galerny Bay . Analysis of distribution of species-indicators in zones of saprobity, and average values of saprobity induces testify that studied water bodies belong to b-mesosaprobic zone.
CYCLOTELLA COMENSIS GRUN. (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN THE LAKE NAROCH (BELARUS) ECOSYSTEM DURING DE-EUTROPHICATION
The Lake Naroch ecosystem (Lakes Naroch, Myastro, and Batorino) have passed through different evolutionary periods of their trophic state: 1) the period with insignificant antropogenic press, 2) the period of antropogenic eutrophication and 3) the period of de-eutrophication, which was accompanied by structural changes and an instable state of phytoplankton communities. During deeutrophication, the invasion of the centric diatom Cyclotella comensis Grun. in the lakes was revealed; recently it was recorded in Belarus only as a fossil. Data on seasonal dynamics and inter-year fluctuations of species number for 12 years of observation (1992-2003) are given. An electron microscopy study of morphological variability of C. comensis from Lake Batorino is presented.
Е.А. Ivanova, Е.S. Kravchuk & О.V. Kolmakova
ECOLOGICAL AND FLORISTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON FROM SMALL WATER BODIES OF KRASNOYARSK (RUSSIA)
The species composition of phytoplankton from four small recreation water bodies of Krasnoyarsk (ponds Bugach, Lesnoy, Nizhniy, and Vetluzhanka) is studied. The greatest taxonomic diversity is observed in Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, and Bacillariophyta. The trophic status of the studied water bodies is determined.
EFFECT OF PH OF THE MEDIUM ON THE PHOTOMOVEMENT PARAMETERS OF DUNALIELLA SALINA TEOD. (CHLOROPHYTA)
The dependence of photomovement parameters of Dunaliella salina (motility, velocity of linear movement, phototopotaxis) on variuos values of pH of medium in the range 2.95-9.50 (which were set at the beginning of experiment and were not regulated later on) was investigated. It was established that the cells demonstrated motility in the range 2.95 < pH < 9.50 at the end of the first day. All the cells of D. salina were immobile and then perished later under pH 2.95. The rest variants were characterised with self-regulation of pH of medium, which reached the range 6.50-8.47 at the end of the 20th day and which was suitable for the variability and motility of the cells of D. salina. The most minimal changes of pH were observed in the medium with the initial pH 8.1, while the most maximal ones – in the last variants with acid and high-alkalinous media. It was established for the first time that the optimal values of pH for various parameters of photomovement of D. salina were not the same: pH 6.8 for motility of the cells Nm/N0 = 100%; pH 7.35 for phototopotaxis (F = 0.7); pH 8.00 for the velocity of linear movement (V = 47±2 mm/s). The sensitivity of above-mentioned photomovement parameters was no the same also to the range of the pH changes. The obtained data testify the possible difference of mechanisms which govern by different photomovement parameters of flagellated algae. The photomovement parameters of phytoflagellates, particularly the data concerning the velocity of linear movement of the cells, can be used phytoflagellates, particularly the data concerning the velocity of linear movement of the cells, can be used as the criteria of selection of optimal medium during the cultivation.
BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEOD. IN LABORATORY CULTURE
The pigment containing bacteria have been isolated from laboratory culture Dunaliella viridis Teod. The bacteria retained red pigmentation on mediums with high concentration NaCl (medium Munz with 5-10% NaCl). The red pigmentation of bacteria disappeared on mediums with low NaCl concentrations. Pigment content positive correlated with concentration NaCl in medium. The bacteria accumulated neutral lipids in medium with n-alkanes. Degree of lipid accumulation positive correlated with pigment content in bacterial cells.
CYANOPHYTA INHABITING PLANKTON OF LITTLE WATER – BODIES IN EAST SIBERIA (RUSSIA)
A study of Cyanophyta, with their taxonomic composition, number, biomass, and production in small water-bodies of East Siberia is presented. The shallow well-heated lakes and river reaches as well as mountain lakes were sampled. In order to reveal peculiarities in the species composition of the blue-green algae inhabiting natural water-bodies of different types, we have used results obtained from phytoplankton of the manmade Berezhskoe water-reservoir. An analysis of our data in combination with the literature data allowed us to separate the blue-green algae we studied into two complexes, summer and winter, and to complete a list of most massive species in the Siberian water-bodies, namely Anabaena flos - aquae, A. lemmermannii, A. spiroides, Aphanothece clathrata, Aphanizomenon flos - aquae, Cyanonephron styloides, Microcystis aeruginosa, M. pulverea. Also we showed that intensively developing blue-green algae cause the "water bloom" phenomenon and so make worse the water purity.
MICROSCOPIC ALGAE OF THE TILIGUL ESTUARY (THE BLACK SEA)
In the Tiligul estuary 101 species of microalgae, that belong to 5 divisions, 8 classes, 15 orders, 28 families and 58 genera have been found. In taxonomic composition Bacillariophyta (77 species) dominates above Cyanoprocaryota (18), Chlorophyta (4), Euglenophyta (1) and Dinophyta (1). 21 species of algae are given for this estuary for the first time.
SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF DINOPHYTA IN THE BLACK SEA
Modern check-list of Dinophyta of the Black Sea is compiled using original and literary data, results of taxonomic revisions and nomenclature changes. It incorporates 324 species with 345 infraspecific taxa. Fifty seven species are new for the Black Sea flora.
NEW DATA ON CYANOPHYTA (CYANOPROCARYOTA) OF "PODОLSKIYE TOVTRY" NATIONAL NATURE PARK (UKRAINE)
In aquatic and terrestrial habitats of "Podolskiye Tovtry" National Nature Park 24 species of cyanoprocaryotes were found. Among them 23 species are new for this territory. Data on quantitative development of revealed species are presented. Gloeocapsopsis cyanea (Krieger) Komarek et Anagn. is first cited for Ukraine. Its description and drawing are given.
TO STUDY OF MORPHOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN SPECIES FROM GENERA MAYAMAEA LANGE-BERTALOT AND FISTULIFERA LANGE-BERTALOT (BACILLARIOPHYTA) FROM RUSSIA AND MONGOLIA Studies of various ecosystems from Russia and Mongolia (sphagnum bogs, lakes, and rivers) made it possible to reveal six taxa from the genus Mayamaea Lange-Bertalot and two from the genus Fistulifera Lange-Bertalot (Bacillariophyta). The data on morphological variability obtained by the electron microscope permitted us to widen the diagnosis of Mayamaea atomus (Kutz.) Lange-Bertalot var. permitis (Hust.) Lange-Bertalot and M. arida (Bock) Lange-Bertalot. The last species was found for the first time after type description. Regularities of morphological variability were detected. The width of the valve appeared to be the most variable sign in representatives of the two genera. The data obtained permitted us to increase knowledge about the geographical distribution of the studied species in Eastern Europe and Mongolia. The species M. atomus var. permitis and Fistulifera saprophila (Lange-Bertalot & Bonik) Lange-Bertalot are presented as new for these territories.
CYANOPHYTA IN GEYSERITE DEPOSITS OF KAMCHATKA
In studies of the Kamchatka geyserite specimens by a scanning electron microscope it was possible to reveal various mineralized microbiota of Cyanophyta, which was silicified under extreme temperature conditions of hydrothermal systems. Thermophilic blue-green algae and other microbiota form the microstructure and texture of the formations under study. An assumption is advanced about the physiological activity of microbiota as a bacterial matrix in the process of siliceous deposits.
THE PALEOECOLOG Y OF NANNOPLANKTON IN PALEOCENE - EOCENE TIME IN THE EASTERN PART OF GREAT DONBAS AND PRECAUCASUS
On the basis of the identified nannofossils species it was possible to make a paleoecological analyze which allowed distinguish the following groups of taxons: tropical, subtropical, broad tropical. During the Late Paleocene, Early, Middle and Upper Eocene in the limits of the studied area existed a warm, moderate deep, open–marine basin. It was noted that on the Late Eocene – Early Oligocene boundary an essential amount decrease of warm and increase of temperate species occurred.
INTERESTING FINDS OF THE CENTRIC DIATOMS IN WATER BODIES OF MALOZEMELSKAYA TUNDRA (RUSSIA)
The results of the Centrophyceae study by use of electronic microscope in some water bodies of the Malozemelskaya Tundra are presented. 17 new species for the lakes in this region were revealed, including the diatoms of two early unknown genera (Orthoseira and Thalassiosira) and one new species for the Russia flora (Cyclotella delicatula Hustedt).
NEW FOR SCIENCE SPECIES FROM GENUS CYCLOTELLA KUTZING (BACILLARIOPHYTA)
On the basis of the electrone-microscopic studies of phytoplankton from the Naroch' Lake (Bielorussia) a neu for science species Cyclotella Kutzing (Bacillariophyta) is described. The species has similarity with Cyclotella kuetzingiana Thwaites.
TO REVISION ON THE GENUS ACHNANTHES S. LATO (BACILLARIOPHYTA). 1. ACHNANTHES BORY S.STR. AND ACHNANTHIDIUM KUTZING S. STR. GENERA
In the review the diagnosis of the new describing genera that were separated from Achnanthes Bory s. lato on the electron microscopy investigation and also taxonomical combinations lists within these genera are represented. First part of the review includes the discussion on new areolae types – macroareolae and postmacroareolae, new feature – level of frustule heterovalvy, suggested for diatom taxa description, uniform plan of diatom genera diagnosis and also an emended diagnosis of Achnanthes s. str. and Achnanthidium Kutzing s. str.
M.V. Usoltseva, Ye.V. Likhoshway
THE FINE STRUCTURE OF LORICAE IN THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS AULACOSEIRA TНWAITES (BACYLLARIOPHYTA) FROM OB' RIVER (RUSSIA)
The morphological parameters are measured, and fine structure is studied for the species Aulacoseira granulata (Ehrenberg) Simonsen, A. ambigua (Grunow) Simonsen, A. subarctica (O. Muller) Haworth. and A. islandica (O. Muller) Simonsen from the summer phytoplankton in Ob' River. The curved form was noticed only for the species A. ambigua which did not differ from typical one by its fine structure. The species A. islandica in Ob' River differs from the representatives of water bodies of Northern America, Europe and Lake Baikal by its amount, and rimoportulae position and shape. Its maximal similarity with Far East population and the species A. pseudoislandica from Kamchatka pleistocene deposits is revealed.
THE COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF MORPHOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF THREE HAEMATOCOCCUS PLUVIALIS FLOTOW (СHLOROPHYTA, CHLAMYDOMONADALES) STRAINS
The features of morphology and chemical composition of vegetative cells and aplanospores in three Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow (Chlorophyta) strains under conditions of two stage batch culture were investigated. It is shown that H. pluvialis strains with various geographical origin and history of storage in microalgae collections may differ significantly in a number of morphological, physiological and biochemical features: cell shape and sizes, optical characteristics of cultures, growth rate on a vegetative phase of life cycle and intensity of the metabolic processes providing transformation of vegetative cells to resting stage and accumulation of secondary carotenoids.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERAL NUTRIMENT OF RED SEAWEED GELIDIUM LATIFOLIUM (GREV.) BORN. ET THUR. IN BATCH CULTURE
Flows of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus of agar-containing red macrophyte from the Black Sea Gelidium latifolium (Grev.) Born. et Thur. in the expreriment in batch culture under periodical nutriment regime were investigated. During 20 cultivation days the biomass of Gelidium increased from 1.33 to 2.88 (at 15.5о С) and 3.41 g of dry weight (at 21.5о С). Biomass accumulation curves are approximated well by exponential function; exponent indices allow to calculate the biomass reduplication time: 13 days at 15.5о С and 12 days at 21.5о С. Biogens concentration declining in nutrient medium is described by exponential dependence. Specific phosphorus and nitrogen uptake rates decrease during cultivation. Specific phosphorus uptake rate is higher at 21.5о С, than at 15.5о С. Uptake of nitrogen in the form of nitrate was more intensive at 15.5о С, than at 21.5о С, during all experiment. Up to the 8th day of the experiment specific nitrate uptake rate changes slightly; after that it declines sharply. Nitrite excretion to medium takes place simultaneously with nitrate uptake, moreover with major specific rate at 21.5о С, than at 15.5о С. Curves, reflecting changes in specific rate of nitrite excretion, are single-peaked with maximum at the 8th day.
CONTEMPORARY MORPHOFUNCTION TRANSFORMATION OF SEAWEED COMMUNITIES OF THE ZERNOV PHYLLOPHORA FIELD
According to the results of two international cruises in 2004, 2006 the contemporary morpho-functional organization of macrophytes of the Zernov phyllophora field has been considered. It has been shown that Phyllophora Grev. communities are replaced by fine, ramified filamentous algae (Polysiphonia sanguinea (Ag.) Zanard., Feldmannia irregularis (Kutz.) Hamel., Desmarestia viridis (O. Mull. in Hornem.) J.V. Lamour.), the ecological activity of which according to indices of specific surface are from 10 to 40 fold greater, than in the phytobenthos of the Danube – Dnieper interfluve and deepwater shelf communities subject to eutrophication. At present, the Phyllophora communities have undergone analogous changes to those which took place in coastal cystoseira communities in the 1970s-1980s.
PHYTOMICROEPIPHYTON OF THE TETERIV RIVER DEEP WATERS AND FORDS (UKRAINE)
The paper considers the peculiarities of the epiphytic algal communities in the Teteriv River morphologically various sites. Phytomicroepiphyton has been proved to reach maximal growth in deep waters, its species diversity, number and biomass being much lower in fords. During all the seasons diatoms and green algae dominated the algal community.
WATER QULITY AND PHYTOPLANKTON OF MAJOR LENTIC WATER BODIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN REGION OF TURKEY (ERZRUM VICINITY)
This paper reports the results of a long-term research related to water quality, trophic status and phytoplankton species composition of major lentic water bodies in northeastern Turkey. Phytoplankton of studied water bodies consisted of 253 taxa from 79 genera belonging to Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta, Dinophyta, and Chrysophyta. Bacillariophyta were generally dominant in the phytoplankton community of studied water bodies. Seasonal development of phytoplankton exhibited two peaks: one in late spring and the other one in autumn. The trophic status and water quality properties of the studied water bodies are discussed in detail in the text.
ALGOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FLUVIO-LACUSTRINE SYSTEMS IN THE NORTH OF THE EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA
The paper is a review of sources on studies of algae in water bodies of East Fenoscandia (Leningrad and Murmansk region, and Republic of Karelia) from the early works of the beginning of the nineteenth century up now.
FIRST DATA ON ALGAE OF "SIBIRSKIYE UVALY" NATURE PARK (WEST SIBERIA, RUSSIA)
The results of study of collections made in July 2005 from the Sei-Kor-Yogan River in the Natural Park "Sibirskiye Uvaly" (West Siberia, Russia) are given. The Bacillariophyta (64) and Chlorophyta (48) play a dominant role among the taxa determined (136). A taxonomic composition of algae and distribution over the groups of activity have been analyzed, discoveries for the region are indicated.
A CONTRIBUTION TO STUDIES OF THE FLORA OF CENTRIC DIATOMS (CENTROPHYCEAE) IN RESERVOIRS OF THE EASTERN MOUNTAIN SIDE OF THE POLAR URALS (RUSSIA)
As a result studies of phytoplankton from lakes and rivers (21) of the eastern mountain side of the Polar Urals, 23 taxa of centric diatoms belonging to seven genera (Aulacoseira, Cyclostephanos, Cyclotella, Melosira, Paralia, Pliocaenicus, Stephanodiscus) were revealed. Eleven species and varieties are reported for the first time for the studied region.
AN ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY STUDY OF CENTRIC DIATOM ALGAE FROM SOME LAKES OF BYELORUSSIA This electron microscopy study of phytoplankton from lakes Naroch, Myastro, Batorino has revealed 12 representatives of centric diatom algae from the genera Aulacoseira, including a new for the science species – Cyclotella narochanica Genkal et Mikheeva and a new for the flora of Byelorussia species – Stephanodiscus heterostylus. The issue of distinguishing a new genus Puncticulata and separation of the species P. comta and P. radiosa is under consideration.
TAXA OF CYANOPHYTA (CYANOPROCARYOTA) ON THE SEA STONY SUPRALITTORAL OF CRIMEA – NEW FOR UKRAINE
Descriptions and drawings of 7 taxa of blue-green algae first cited for Ukraine are presented: namely of Gloeocapsa lithophila (Erceg.) Hollerb., Lyngbya epiphytica f. calotrichicola (Copelend) Kondrat., Lyngbya gardneri (Setch. et Gardn.) Geitl., Schizothrix septentrionalis Gom., Microcoleus confluens Setch. et Gardn., Microcoleus tenerrimus f. minor Elenk., Gloeothece coerulea Geitl.
USING OF MICROSCOPIC ALGAE FOR MAINTENANCE OF SOILS FERTILITY AND INCREASING OF CROP CAPACITY OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS
Тhere are considered questions of search of additional reserves of basic biogenic elements and natural biologically active organic compounds, which are important for forming the crop capacity of agricultural plants and maintenance of soils fertility. As one of such reserves may be using of water layers and production of algae from high-trophic water objects, which are enriched by biogenic elements. There are presented examples of realization of such problems as ecologically safe using of technical possibilities of man in circulation of matter and energy with aim of its optimization under conditions of anthropogenic press on water objects and receiving of reserves of natural fertilizers.
FAMOUS DIATOMOLOGISTS OF RUSSIA
The history of diatom research in Russia is part of a tercentennial history of diatomology. During all this period, Russian phycologists contributed to its progress. Brief biographies and main publications of Russian diatomologists from the 18-th century up to 2005 are presented.
Ye.V. Rodionovа, G.V. Pomazkina
MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF CYMBELLA VENTRICOSA KUTZ. (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN LAKE BAIKAL (RUSSIA)
Electron microscopy of Cymbella ventricosa Kutz. valves of Lake Baikal revealed significant variability of quantitative and qualitative morphological characters, which allowed to specify and enlarge the diagnosis of the species.
EFFECT OF K2CR2O7 ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY AND MOBILITY OF EUGLENA GRACILIS KLEBS CELLS
It is investigated the effect of K2CR2O7 in the concentration from 0,05 to 135 mg/L on the physiological indices of highsaprobic green algae Euglena gracilis Klebs. In experiments had been used methods of differential fluorometry and laser-doppler spectrometry for measuring of changes in chlorophylls concentration, level of potential photosynthetic activity, speed, energy of cell mobility of E. gracilis during 1, 4 and 7 days contact with potassium bichromate. It was established that degree of chromium toxicity depends significantly from duration of contact: under its increasing toxicity rises essentially.
THE STUDY OF THE CONDITIONS OF COMPATIBILITY FOR THE POLYSACCHARIDES FROM FURCELLARIA LAMOUR. AND PHYLLOPHORA GREV. (RHODOPHYTA)
The conditions of compatibility for the polysaccharides from Baltic algae Furcellaria lumbricalis (Huds.) Lamour. and Phyllophora truncata (Pall.) Newroth et Taylor. (Rhodophyta) were investigated. The resemblance of optical properties of the solutions of furcellaran and Phyllophora Grev. polysaccharides are shown. High values of spin-spin relaxation are characteristic for polysaccharide chains of furcellaran and Phyllophora polysaccharides, giving evidence of the lack of crystalline domains in the systems of these biopolymers. The polysaccharides of F. lumbricalis and Ph. truncata are able to form homogeneous and stable compositions with high gelling capacity. They may be used as structure-forming substances, agar and carrageenan analogues, and the mixture of Furcellaria and Phyllophora is a suitable raw material for their production.
LIMNOTHRIX REDECKEI (VAN GOOR) MEFFERT (CYANOPROCARYOTA) IN PLANKTON RIVER BARNAULKA (RUSSIA)
Limnophilous Limnothrix redeckei (Van Goor) Meffert significant development in unregulated lowland Barnaulka river downstream was revealed in 2002-2003 at the end of summer-autumn and at the beginning of winter low water. It is caused by the decline of water level and external water exchange intensity. At open water in winter low water period L. redeckei abundance, cell and trichome volume mean values increased. The mean cells number in trichome was nearly constant. In freezing period abundance and mean length of L. redeckei trichome decreased. With full or partial loss of gas vacuoles trichomes were different from those of Pseudanabaena limnetica (Lemm.) Anagn. et Komarek. They were not constricted at invisible cross walls. This doesn't coincide with Whitton's (2002) observations and assumption of these species similarity.
OCCURRENCE OF SPECIES AND DIVERSITY OF PLANKTONIC ALGAE IN THE TETERIV RIVER AND ITS WATER RESERVOIRS (UKRAINE)
The paper considers the planktonic algae occurrence in the Teteriv River including its water reservoirs from the headwaters and downstream towards the Kiev reservoir. The leading divisions, forming the main bulk of the phytoplankton diversity depending upon the algae occurrence (according to the floristic index Fspp) were Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta. In general, during 2004 planktonic algae were represented by 242 species (280 infraspecies taxa including the nomenclative species type), belonging to 8 divisions. Species composition was mainly formed by Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta.
MACROPHYTOBENTHOS OF THE BLACK SEA COAST OF KERCH PENINSULAR (CRIMEA, UKRAINE)
According the results of investigations (2004 year) datas about spatial distribution, qualitive and quantitive staff of macrophytobenthos at the cape Ak-Burun (Crimea: priority district Takyl; Black Sea) are given. Exponents meaning variation along the shore and according to the depth are characterized). It was registrated 68 species macroalgae in whole: Chlorophyta - 13 (19%), Phaeophyta - 19 (28%), Rhodophyta - 42 (62%). Biomass of benthos vegetation is 0,7-1 kgxm - 2 in pseudolittoral (32 species of macroalgae are found) and 1,5-7 kgxm - 2 in sublittoral (64 species of macroalgae are found). Expediency of two subzones allotion in the borders of pseudolittoral zone is shown. Algoflora has high expressed oligosaprobic character. According to the number of species of algaes with short period of vegetation predominate, according to the biomass - perennial species of algaes predominate. Aquatories is recommended to be included to the staff of Nature Reserve Fund.
THE ADDITION TO FLORA OF BACILLARIOPHYTA OF WATER BODIES OF THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC
New data on flora of Bacillariophyta of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago and Vaigach Isl. based on a t ransmission electron microscopic study of benthic samples are presented . As a result of the study, 22 taxa, previously not cited for Russia before, were revealed. Brief descriptions of the recorded taxa, original microphotographs, data on their locations, ecology, and distribution are given.
ALGAE OF TERRAQUEOUS ECOTONES OF THE BASU RIVER VALLEY (SOUTH URAL, RUSSIA)
Regularities in distribution of algocenoses in various zones of the river valley and factors determining them were revealed. In the terraqueous ecotones of the Basu river 148 species of algae, belonging to 5 divisions, were found. By their abundance the algae from the divisions Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta predominated in all areas of the longitudinal profile of the river valley and by their relative occurrence – Bacillariophyta (44%), Cyanophyta (32%), and С hlorophyta (21%). Ecotonic algocenoses differed not only in species composition, but also in abundance, occurrence, range of life forms and in the environmental factor value. The littoral area of the river and the area of the second high level of the central flood plain were the most abundant in the quantity of species; the diversity of the total systemic structure increased and characterized the soil algocenoses by a full range of life forms.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKE BAIKAL SUMMER PHYTOPLANKTON AND AUTOTROPHIC PICOPLANKTON (RUSSIA)
This work deals with peculiarities of species diversity, abundance and biomass of phytoplankton and autotrophic picoplankton (APP) in different regions of Lake Baikal in summer 2005. The three basins of the lake possess similar dominant complexes of species forming the lake phytoplankton except bays, shoals and near-shore areas where there is an increase in species composition of phytoplankton and high values of abundance and biomass. The level of growth of phytoplankton and picoplankton in the pelagic is mean. The APP contribution into the total biomass of the water area varies from 3 to 71%, and between 57 and 89% – into the chlorophyll a concentration. There is observed a decrease of picophytoplankton contribution in the total biomass in bays, and near-shore areas. The APP role in the lake pelagic zone is high; it is 38-62% in the 0-50 m layer.
PRODUCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS GRACILARIA VERRUCOSA (HUDS.) PAPENF. F. PROCERRIMA (ESP.) AG. OF BLACK SEA IN CONDITIONS OF CULTURE
Productional characteristics Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds.) Papenf. f. procerrima (Esp.) Ag. of Black Sea are investigated in periodic and continuous culture at ambient temperatures 18; 23; 27о С and light intensity 30 and 40 W/m2. It is revealed, that the ambient temperature defines intensity of adaptable rearrangements of thalli of macrophyte. It is shown, that the ambient temperature 23о С is optimum productivity by criterion thalli. Growth Gracilaria, besides an ambient temperature, depends and on a level of light intensity. At an ambient temperature 27о С stable growth Gracilaria is marked only at intensity of light of 40 W/m2. Immediate influence of a periodic or continuous mean of feed on productional characteristics of an alga it is not revealed, however, in the first event observed less intensive appearance of epiphytes. The maximal values of production (121.4 g of crude biomass from m2 day) and specific growth rate (0.13 day-1) Gracilaria are received in continuous culture at an ambient temperature 23о С and intensity of light of 40 W/m2.
G.M. Palamar-Mordvintseva, P.M. Tsarenko
SPECIES CONCEPT AND MODERN PROBLEMS OF SYSTEMATICS OF ALGAE
Species concept of algae is discussed. Brief history of the species concept development in algology is given. Morphological, biological and phylogenetic concepts of species are presented. The role of experimental and molecular-genetic studies in clarifying of species concept of eukaryotic algae of chlorophyte line of evolution and urgent tasks of systematics of this group are discussed.
THE EFFECT OF RED LIGHT ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS UNDER AUTO- AND PHOTOHETEROTROPHIC GROWTH OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS (NORDST.) GEITL. (CYANOPHYTA)
The effect of red light-emitting diodes (LED) (l max = 630 nm, Dl = 20 nm) on photosynthetic apparatus and growth of Spirulina platensis (Nordst.) Geitl. under auto- and photoheterotrophyc conditions has been studied. It was shown, that the addition of red light to the background illumination of luminescent lamps leads to the decrease of pigment content, but the pigment ratio does not change. Addition of glucose in cultural medium caused more high decrease of all pigment content both under white and red-enriched white light. Red-enriched white light led to enhancing of biomass accumulation algae, maximum value of which was achieved under photoheterotrophyc growth condition (3,6 fold). Biochemical and fluorescence data show higher effectivity the using of red light by photosynthetic apparatus of S. platensis. The using of monochromatic red LEDs permits to change spectral composition of artificial light sources, study peculiarities of adaptation of algal cultures to light regimes and provide of electric energy saving.
OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF MICROALGAE GROWTH MODE IN CHEMOSTAT BY THE EXAMPLE OF DUNALIELLA SALINA TEOD.
The mathematical model of microalgae growth in chemostat conditions is developed within the framework of linear growth. It is shown, that at continuous cultivation of microalgae the top yield is achieved at inclusion of a channel right at the beginning of a linear phase of periodic culture, at the maximal size of specific speed of a channel of environment.
CENTROPHYCEAE IN THE UPPER SECTION OF THE KANEV WATER RESERVOIR (UKRAINE)
The paper presents the results of the original studies on centric diatoms in the upper section of the Kanev water reservoir according to 2003–2005 materials; their species composition has been systematized and more precise. During the last decades these algae have constituted a considerable part of the Dnieper phytoplankton quatitative diversity. 25 centric diatom taxa has been recorded, 4 species are new for Ukrainian flora and 6 species are new for the Kanev water reservoir.
THE USE OF PHYTOPLANKTON CHARACTERISTICS FOR ESTIMATION OF THE ECOLOGICAL STATE OF THE TOM' RIVER (RUSSIA) IN FLOOD-TIME
The composition, structure and abundance of phytoplankton in the Tom' river from the city of Novokuznetsk to settlement Krapivino were investigated in flood-time on May 23-30, 2005. It has been established that under conditions of higher turbulence and muddiness of river waters phytoplankton preserves the structure, quantitative characteristics and, as a result, the high potential of biological self-purification, despite the considerable anthropogenic influence on certain river areas.
XANTHOPHYTA OF RESERVOIRS OF REGIONAL LANDSCAPE PARK "NIZHNEVORSKLYANSKIY" (UKRAINE)
In polytypic reservoirs of regional landscape park (RLP) "Nizhnevorsklyanskiy" 69 kinds, versions and forms Xanthophyta from 5 orders, 8 families and 22 sorts are revealed. The full list revealed taxons with indication for everyone values of a relative abundance in different types of reservoirs is resulted. It is established, that the list of 10 leading sorts coincide for flora Xanthophyta RLP and Ukraine with one exception (sort Gloeobotrys).
TO REVISION ON THE GENUS ACHNANTHES S. LATO (BACILLARIOPHYTA). 2. NEW MONORAPHID GENERA AND KEY TO THEIR DETERMINATION
In the second part of review the new describing genera diagnosis of Psammothidium, Rossithidium, Planothidium, Karayevia, Pogoneis, Lemnicola, Pauliella, Astartiella, Vikingea that were separated from Achnanthes Bory s. lato on the electron microscopy investigation and also taxonomical combinations lists within these genera are represented. The diagnosis are composed according uniform plan, augmented by absent or corrected from protologes features. For determination of monoraphid genera the key is constituted that includes both electron and light microscopy data.