S.I. Genkal, V.G. Kharitonov
PECULIARITIES OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION OF SOME NEW FOR THE FLORA
OF UKRAINE AND RARE SPECIES OF VOLVOCALES (CHLOROPHYTA)
Sh. Rostama, A.I. Bozhkov, A.V. Goltvyanskiy
V.A. Silkin, V.D. Dzizurov, V.K. Chasovnikov, N.I. Esin
Zh.V. Markina, N.A. Aizdaicher
O.P. Garkusha, B.G. Aleksandrov, A.Yu. Goncharov
O.G. Gorokhova, I.I. Popchenko, L.G. Korneva, S.I. Genkal, V.N. Pautova
G.G. Lilitskaya, P.M. Tsarenko
, E.E. Manankina, T.V. Samovich, E.A. Budakova
INFLUENCE OF LIGHT AND DARK PERIODS ALTERNATION ON PRODUCTION OF SPIRULINA (ARTHROSPIRA) PLATENSIS (NORDST.) GEITLER
SOME PECULIARITIES OF THE DESTRUCTION CLADOFORA SIVASHENSIS C. MEYER (CHLOROPHYTA) ORGANIC SUBSTANCE
CHAETOCEROS THRONDSENII (BACILLARIOPHYTA) ? NEW SPECIES IN THE BLACK SEA: GROWTH IN NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS
B.G. Alexandrov, L.M. Terenko, D.A. Nesterova
E.A. Zhegallo, E.I. Tembrel, G.A. Karpov, L.M. Gerasimenko, V.K. Orleansky
SPECIES OF GENUS VAUCHERIA DC. BASINS OF NORTH-WEST BLACK SEA
NEAR-BY TERRITORY (UKRAINE)
PHYTOEPIPHYTON OF THE RIVER SECTION OF THE
KANEV RESERVOIR (UKRAINE)
USE OF THE MICROALGAE DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEODOR. (CHLOROPHYTA) AS A CELL BIOINDICATOR
It has been investigated the influence of cytotoxic components of the blood serum of patients with critical conditions (acute varicose thrombosis and deep vein thrombosis, myasthenia gravis, biliary cirrhosis, pancreatonecrosis, burns.) on the cells of microalgae Dunaliella viridis. The responses of bioindicator cells indicate about the presence mechanisms of cytotoxic actions affecting the metabolic activity, the functioning of the membrane complex, the ion channels of cells. Qualitative and quantitative differences between the reactions of microalgae, as well as the concentration dependence of cytotoxic factors indicate that the number and nature of these factors is different at different critical conditions.
I.Yu. Kostikov, E.N. Demchenko, V.R. Boiko, A.A. Goncharov
CHLOROCHYTRIUM HYPANICUS SP. NOV. (CHLOROPHYCEAE) AND ITS POSITION IN THE SYSTEM OF PROTOSIPHONALES
The description of a new species of green algae, Chlorochytrium hypanicus sp. nov. (Chlorophyceae), found in a flow of mud from the Southern Bug River (Ukraine) is presented. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the nuclear gene of 18S rDNA showed the position of this species in the system of Stephanosphaerinia macroclade, which generally corresponds to the previously proposed order Protosiphonales. It is shown that, in this order, incorporating four clades and "Protosiphonales incertae sedis" group of taxa, Chlorochytrium hypanicus, belongs to the clade corresponding Protosiphonaceae s.l., whose members differ from other representatives of this order by the presence of naked biflagellate zoospores. Morphologically, Ch. hypanicus is similar to Ch. lemnae Cohn, differing from it by anterior stigma in zoospores, thicker envelope of subsenile cells, a finely tuberculate envelope of akinetes, and by mode of life (free-living, not endophytic). From other species of the genus Chlorochytrium Cohn,new species differ by fission of desmoschisis type, leading to the formation of dyads, packages, and pleurococcal clusters. We discuss the volume, diacritical features, and structure of Protosiphonaceae, including the similarity of the results of molecular genetic and phenotypic approaches in the taxonomy of this family.
THE INFLUENCE OF SOME METALLOCOMPLEXES ON PHYCOCYANIN CONTENT AND SUPEROXIDDISMUTASE ACTIVITY IN THE BIOMASS OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS (NORDST.) GEITLER (CYANOPHYTA)
The influence of some metallocomplexes of Mn (II) и Zn (II) on phycocyanin content and superoxiddismutase activity in the biomass of blue-green algae Spirulina platensis has been investigated and new procedures of obtaining of spirulina biomass with high content of antioxidants of protein nature have been elaborated. As a result of the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis the biochemical composition of obtained protein extracts "SP-SOD/Phyco-1" and "SP-SOD/Phyco-2", including the water-soluble pigment – phycocyanin and the enzyme - superoxiddismutase (SOD), has been established. This investigation demonstrates the possibility of utilization of S. platensis as biotechnological object for the obtaining of antioxidants of protein nature.
TAXONOMIC COMPOSITION AND ECOLOGY OF GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA AND STREPTOPHYTA) IN SHALLOW WEAKLY MINERALIZED FOREST LAKES
The results of studies (1989–1999) on the flora and dominant assemblages of planktonic greens (Chlorophyta and Streptophyta) in seven shallow weakly mineralized forest lakes are presented. The lakes are located on the area of the Darwin State National Reserve (Vologda Oblast, Russia). It is shown that the process of increasing lake acidity is accompanied by decline in the general richness of greens, especially of order Sphaeropleales and Chlorellales. At the same time, the proportion of species preferring high acidity and low content of organic matter and salts increases, as well as of number of dominant species, relative biomass of Chlorophyta and Streptophyta owing to algae of orders Zygnematales and Desmidiales. The possible morphological and physiological adaptations of individual representatives of greens promoting their development in acidic lakes are discussed.
PHYTOPLANKTON OF DEEP-WATER LAKES OF SOUTHERN URAL DURING A HIGH LEVEL OF WATER (RUSSIA)
The paper deals with the results of original studies of the phytoplankton taxonomical diversity and structure of dominant complexes phytoplankton in the deep-water lakes of Southern Ural are submitted during a multiwater hydrological cycle. In general, the lake phytoplankton is dominated by green, diatoms and chrysophyta with appreciable participation Dinophyta and the considerable part of blue-green algae.
CHRYSOPHYTA OF RESERVOIRS AND WATER CURRENTS OF OMSK PRIIRTYSHYE (RUSSIA)
Data about specific composition, expansion and an abundance of golden algae (Chrysophyta) in the rivers and reservoirs of pool of average Irtysh is cited. In comparison with the XX century specific riches and number of golden algae have considerably increased that is connected with eutrophication and pollution by organic matters of water objects of Omsk Priirtyshye.
MACROPHYTOBENTHOS OF SMALL PHYLLOPHORA FIELD (KARKINIT BAY, BLACK SEA, UKRAINE) The results of study on macrophytobenthos littoral area in the ІІ Small phyllophora field region of Karkinit Bay (Black Sea) are presented. 48 species of macrophytes (Phaeophyta – 9, Rhodophyta – 26, Chlorophyta – 10 and Magnoliophyta – 3) were revealed. Their ecology and biology peculiarity were analyzed. It was concluded that algoflora of investigating area of Bay appreciably changed in comparison with 60-s years last century. Their comparative coefficient by Sorensen is 40 %.
COMPLEXES OF DOMINANT PHYTOPLANKTON FORMS FROM DIFFERENT TYPES WATER BODIES
Selected set of dominant forms of phytoplankton as a result of processing 340 quantitative samples of phytoplankton from the water reservoirs of different types of Seversky Donets basin (river, floodplain water bodies, fertilized fish ponds). In this complex includes 108 species: Cyanophyta (Cyanoprokaryota) – 25, Dinophyta – 5, Cryptophyta – 4, Chrysophyta – 8, Xanthophyta – 4, Bacillariophyta – 14, Euglenophyta – 4, Chlorophyta – 44. We give a list of them. For each calculated frequency of occurrence and dominance of individual indexes.
SUBFAMILY LEPTOLYNGBYOIDEAE ANAGN. ET KOMAREK (OSCILLATORIALES, CYANOPROKARYOTA) IN FLORA OF UKRAINE WITH REFERENCE TO ECOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF TAXA
The results of the revision of taxa of subfamily Leptolyngbyoideae (Oscillatoriales, Cyano-prokaryota) found in Ukraine with special reference to their ecological peculiarities are presented. The checklist of 46 species of Ukrainian flora belonging to genera Planktolyngbya (4 species), Leibleinia (4), and Leptolyngbya (38 species) is given. A new nomenclatural combination: Leptolyngbya ucrainica (Elenkin) O.M. Vynogr. comb. nov. is proposed.
V.M. Mokrosnop, E.K. Zolotareva
THE EFFECT OF SELECTED FUNGICIDES ON GROWTH OF EUGLENA GRACILIS KLEBS (EUGLENOPHYTA) CULTURE
Culture of Euglena gracilis growing mixotrophycally is subject to fungal infection. 4 fungicides which widely used in agriculture to protect plants against fungal infections were tested for suppression of the development of spores or mycelia of pathogenic fungi in the E. gracilis culture. It was analyzed the effect of propineb, mancozeb, benomyl and the mixture (1:1) of famoxadon and cymoksanil added to the liquid and agar mineral nutrient medium containing glutamic acid as an exogenous carbon source. It is shown that the contact fungicides propineb and mancozeb in tested concentrations kill algal cells but do not suppress the growth of fungi. Benomyl, as well as a combined preparation of famoxadon and cymoksanil (1:1), inhibits the growth of fungi and did not suppress the cell growth of microalgae E. gracilis. The experiments, directed to detection of the viability of spores in the culture suspensions, showed that only benomyl at concentrations which do not affect the growth of microalgae, significantly reduces the number of viable spores. Thus, as a result of the study, it was found that benomyl at a concentration of 20 mg/ml is of potential value in eliminating fungal contaminants from culture of E. gracilis.
THE EFFECT OF FUCUS VESICULOSUS L. (PHAEOPHYCEAE) LOCATION IN THE DEPTH ON ITS MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS (BARENTS SEA, RUSSIA)
Investigation of species diversity of epiphytes and phytophages, thalus morphology, growth rates, intensity of photosynthesis, composition and ratio of photosynthetic pigments, metabolic activity of cells of brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, placed on depths from 0 to 15 m, was carried out. Results of researches have shown that in the absence of an interspecific competition the depth of 0.5 m is more favorable for Barents Sea F. vesiculosus growth.
PROGNOSTIC ESTIMATION OF BENTHIC DIATOMS SPECIES
Benthic diatoms species richness had been analyzed based on materials collected in 1996–2009 at 8 near shore locations of SW Crimea. Totally 93 stations were sampled on sandy-muddy substrate within depth range 6–48 m. At total, 433 diatom species were found by results of cell calculations in Goryaev chamber and microscoping of permanent slides. Prognostic estimation of the expected diatom species richness (Sexp) was performed by application of 4 estimators (jack-knife-1 & 2, Chao-2 and Karakassis-S∞). The statistical assessment of the estimators’ results accuracy and evaluation of optimal ratio between minimal sampling efforts and maximal information about diatom species richness at the certain sampling location were conducted. The estimation accuracy of the Sexp is increased proportionally to sampling efforts. Magnitude of Sexp, resulted by estimator S∞, displayed the most similar values to the really observed species number (Sobs). Overestimation of Sobs values (not more than 10–13 %) was found under consideration of 12–15 samples or less, and slightly underestimation (3–5 %) when number of samples exceeds 40–43. The other estimators gave large overestimated results of the expected species richness (Chao – from 21 to 70 % higher than Sobs, Jack-knife – 23–58 %), calculated by randomization for increasing row of all samples. Based on relative error (RE) and squared relative deviation (SRD) the estimators’ accuracy depending on biotopes peculiarities and sampling efforts was evaluated. It was shown, all estimators give overestimated results of the Sexp (1.3 to 1.8 times) under consideration of few samples (4–6). Under extension of station number up to 15–20, Chao and Jack-knife estimators give decreasing of the RE and SRD values. Estimator S∞ quite precisely evaluates parameter Sexp after the first 7-8 permutated samples. The parameters of generalized log-dependence between number of samples (1 to 93) and ratio (%) of species richness, totally registered in near shore water areas of SW Crimea (433 spp.) were determined. Detection of about 50 % of all species registered in SW Crimea on sandy/muddy substrates within 5-45 m depth range is required consideration of not less than 10 randomized stations. Similarly, revelation of 67 % of total species richness is necessary to study not less than 20 stations, and 80 % ones – about 40 stations (on assumption the equal probability of any species presence in samples). Application of this dependence can be recommended for prognostic evaluation of percent share of diatom species richness in relation to different sampling efforts under exploring of ecologically similar and earlier not studied coastal areas of the Black Sea.
ALGAE OF WATER BODIES OF THE VERKHOYANSK MOUNTAINS (YAKUTIA, RUSSIA)
It is the first time a synopsis of algae flora of water bodies from valley and forest complexes was made according to the geographical types of the Verkhoyansk Mountains. 598 species represented by 717 infraspecific taxa including typical ones from 165 genera, 96 families and 10 divisions were found. We made a comparison of the flora of the examined water bodies in the Verhoyansk Mountains and found three dominant diatoms in the three geographical types: 229 algae taxa in Central Verkhoyanie, 193 – in East Verkhoyanie and 145 – in West Verkhoyanie. 50 new algae taxa from 5 divisions are first reported for Yakutia. These are Bacillariophyta – 21, Chlorophyta – 11, Chrysophyta – 9, Cyanophyta – 8 and Dinophyta – 1 species.
PHYTOPLANKTON TAXONOMICAL STRUCTURE IN UPPER PART OF SOUTHERN BUG RIVER (UKRAINE)
Plankton algae species diversity in upper part of Southern Bug River was investigated in 298 species (319 infraspecific taxa). Among them, 205 species (217 infr. taxa) are new for the waterbody. Green-diatom complex is characteristic for inverstigational territory. Chlorophyta (40 %), Bacillarophyta (19 %), Euglenophyta (18 %) and Cyanoprokaryota (12 %) are dominant groups.
ON THE VALIDITY OF DISTINGUISHING OF SOME EARLY CARBONIFEROUS GENERA OF DASYCLADATES ALGAE OF THE ACICULELLEAE BASSOULLET ET AL. TRIBE (CHLOROPHYTA)
Dasycladates algae, which are assigned to the Aciculelleae fossil tribe were found in the thin sections from the Visean deposits of the Donets Basin and the Dono-Dnieper Depression. The paleontologists undestend the genera belonging to this tribe in different way. Thorough analysis of descriptions and illustrations of published Aciculelleae fossil tribe permitted to suppose that Sphinctoporella Mamet & Rudloff, 1972, and Frosterleyella Elliott as well as Diploporeae gen. indet. are synonyms of Kulikia Golubtsov, 1961.
DINOCYSTS OF CALLOVIAN IN THE REGION OF CENTRAL UKRAINE
The article is devoted to the results of the study of organic-walled-microphytoplankton (dinocysts, acritarchs, green algae), set in the rocks of Callovian age (Middle Jurassic – 161-165 Ma) in the central part Ukraine. It was first described Callovian microphytofossils complexes which were studied in Macerata rock samples from обнажений outcrops vicinity of Kanev (Cherkassy region), and wells which were drilled in Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky district of Kiev region. A detailed sys фациальным зонам tematic study of microphytofossils Callovian Stage allowed to draw conclusions about the conditions of paleobionomicheskih sedimentation basin, and to clarify the geological age of rocks and their host residues.
NEW FOR THE UKRAINE SPECIES OF BACILLARIOPHYTA FROM SHAZKIJ NATIONAL NATURAL PARK (UKRAINE)
New for the Ukraine territory diatoms species form Shazkij National Natural Park are described in the article. The short description of 18 rare for territory Ukraine and for the Europe species is presented.
FIRST FINDINGS OF THE MARINE SPECIES CYCLOTELLA MARINA (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN FRESHWATERS OF EUROPE
The complex of small-sized species of centric diatoms has been identified by using scanning electron microscopy in the studies of phytoplankton and phytoperiphyton of the cooling pond of the Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant (Ukraine) and the phytoplankton of the River Oka (a tributary of Volga, Russia). For the first time in Europe and the first time in fresh water Cyclotella marina (Tanimura, Nagumo et Kato) Ake-Castillo, Okolodk. et Ector has been found in this complex. Cyclotella marina had been described from Tokyo Bay, and later had been found in other marine waters. The wider variability of some morphological signs has been shown. Ecological valence and habitat of this species have been specificate.
CHLOROPHYLL A CONTENT IN PHYTOPLANKTON BIOMASS (REVIEW)
Based on the analysis of literature chlorophyll content per phytoplankton biomass unit (chl./B) in different environmental conditions is under consideration. This is caused by the need to obtain conversion coefficients in the evaluation of biomass using chlorophyll method. The high variability of chl./B because of complex dependence on abiotic parameters, algal composition and status, the water body trophic state restricts the use of chlorophyll for the accurate determination of phytoplankton biomass. However, the estimated assessment can be recommended based on calculated chl. B values for different trophic status of water bodies (0.18 in oligotrophic waters, 0.40 in mesotrophic and eutrophic waters, 1.03 in highly eutrophic water), and averaged on a large data rate chl./B values equal 0.53.