EVOLUTION OF EVOLUTIONARY IDEA (ANNIVERSARY OF CHARLES DARWIN)
Biographic data and first scientific works of Ch. Darwin are briefly outlined; the problem of the origin of species, Darwin's contribution to natural sciences, and the role of historic methods in nature research are discussed, the main stages of development of Darwinism in Great Britain, Germany, Russia and other countries are elucidated. Outstanding Ukrainian scientists of the 20th century (V.I. Vernadsky, M.G. Kholodny, S.G. Navashin, I.I. Schmalhausen, S.M. Gershenson, A.A. Sapegin, D.K. Zerov, V.Y. Yuryev and others) greatly acknowledged and further developed Darwinian evolutionary ideas. Critique of the natural selection concept from the viewpoint of anti-Darwinian biologists is also considered. The synthetic theory of evolution founded and developed by S.S. Chetverikov, N.I. Vavilov, V.M. Sukachev, T. Dobzhansky, I.I. Schmalhausen, E. Mayr, G.G. Simpson and many other scientists is discussed. The a nti-Darwinian activities of T.D. Lysenko negatively influenced development of evolutionary ideas. The author tried to elucidate the development of Darwinism by new generations of biologists, based on new methods and approaches. In particular, while considering convergent and divergent evolution, speciation in its morphological, ecological, geographical, populational genetic, cytological and embryological aspects, the author discusses some deficiencies of Ukrainian botany in studying evolutionary processes at the molecular level. New evolutionary ideas proposed by G.A. Zavarzin, L.P. Tatarinov, Yu.V. Chaikovsky, D.L. Grodnitsky, Yu.R. Shelyag-Sosonko are discussed. The need for integral profound evolutionary studies in life sciences is emphasized.
A TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE GENUS RAPHANUS (SECT. RAPHANISTRUM; BRASSICACEAE)
A taxonomic revision of species of the genus Raphanus sect. Raphanistrum is provided. Three new series (ser. Raphanistroides Iljinskaja, ser. nov., including R. raphanistroides, R. acanthiformis; ser. Maritimae Iljinskaja, ser. nov., including R. maritimus, R. landra, R. odessanus, R. rostratus, R. pugioniformisi, and ser. Raphanistrae Iljinskaja, ser. nov., including R. microcarpus, R. raphanistrum, R. candidus, are described. Four species (i.e. R. odessanus, R. raphanistrum, R. candidus and recently introduced Japanese R. acanthiformis) is presently recorded in Ukraine. Nomenclature, morphological peculiarities, data on distribution and habitats are given for each species. The genesis of the genus Raphanus and its species is discussed. A key to species of Raphanus in the flora of Ukraine is presented.
HEDERA HELIX L. FROM «HOLOSIJIVS'KYJ» NATIONAL NATURE PARK
Data on a new locality of a supposed Tertiary relict species Hedera helix L. at area of 35 ґ 30 m at the Holosiyivs'ky National Nature Park (Kyiv) are presented. Other finds of H. helix at adjacent regions of Ukraine are analyzed, growth conditions for the locality of H. helix in the broadleaf forest of the park are described. It is assumed that the most plausible explanation of the occurrence of H. helix in the area is due to anthropic factors, through its escape from cultivation.
FESTUCA X POLOVINA BEDNARSKA — NEW NOTHOSPECIES IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
The new nothospecies F. × polovina Bednarska (F. polesica Zapa і. × F. ovina L.) is described. The issues of nomenclature and synonymy are discussed.
ON THE NEW FIND OF CAREX SECALINA WILLD. EX WAHLENB. (CYPERACEAE) IN THE TILIGUL ESTUARY
Three new localities of Carex secalina Willd. еx Wahlenb. in Ukraine are reported. It was found in the Tiligul Estuary in the steppe zone of Ukraine. The characteristics of the modern distribution of the species, its ecological and cenotic peculiarities are provided. This species needs conservation and further studies in Ukraine.
NEW SPECIES FOR THE FLORA OF DNIPROPETROV'SK REGION, ELITRIGIA MAEOTICA (РROKUD.) РROKUD. AND СLEISTOGENES SEROTINA (LINK.) KENG.
New species for the flor a of Dnipropetrov'sk Region are reported: Elytrigia maeotica (Рrokud.) Рrokud. in Dnipropetrovsk District at Pankratev Hollow and in Petropavlovsk District, as well as Сleistogenes serotina (Link.) Keng in Kryvyi Rig District, in Visirka Preserve at dumps of iron-ore open-cast mines. A brief biological and ecological characterization of these species are provided.
FUMARIA CAPREOLATA L. — A NEW ALIAN SPECIES FOR THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
The article informs about tne new alian species Fumaria capreolata L. in flora of the Crimea and Ukraine, found on the South Coast of the Crimean peninsula. Data on localization its population in the Crimea and distribution in other countres have been given.
RESULTS OF A NATURE PASTORAL EXPERIMENT IN THE KHOMUTOVSKY STEPPE RESERVE
In 2000 in the Khomutovsky Steppe Reserve (Donetsk Region, Ukraine) a project for experimental pasturage of horses started. The objective of the project was to elaborate, assess efficiency, and optimize parameters of these control actions conformably to true steppes formed by diverse grass, fescue, and feather-grass. An estimation of the effect of pasturage of 15 horses on 170 steppe hectares in 2000–2005 was based on a comparative analysis of spatial changes of main phytocoenoses, structural reorganizations of grass communities (including projective covering, species diversity, saturation, and frequency etc.), and data on ecotopic shifts in habitats obtained by ordination of synphytoindication parameters. It has been show that the mentioned pasturage influence was insufficient for reaching essential transformation of phytosystems and stabilizing these systems at the level of subclimax coenoses. On the other hand, although the formerly observed structural drift in the direction of spontaneous transformations continued, this process was visibly inhibited by pasturage of horses. The authors believe that this pasturage load (one horse per 11 ha of steppe) is insufficient for the necessary effect, and the impact of one horse per 4–5 ha is optimal for this typological variant of Ukrainian steppes. In addition, the proposed control measures of steppe ecosystems should include mowing of the experimental plot once in three years and fire control once in 7–10 years.
HYPHAL TYPES OF POLYPOROID AND PLEUROTOID FUNGI: A TERMINOLOGICAL REVISION
The article discusses issues of morphology of sclerified hyphae in fungi of the order Polyporales and related taxa. A historical terminological overview and revision of hyphal terminology are provided. Peculiarities of hyphal systems are studied in genera Bjerkandera, Collybia, Dermoloma, Dichomitus, Flammulina, Gloeophyllum, Grifola, Hydropus, Irpex, Laetiporus, Lentinus, Megacollybia, Meripilus, Ossicaulis, Panus, Phyllotopsis, Pleurotus, Polyporus, Sarcomyxa, Schizophyllum, Xerula.
NEW DATA ON MORPHOLOGY, ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION THALASSIOSIRA CORONIFERA PR.-LAVR. (BACILLARIOPHYTA)
Using scanning electron microscopy, new data on morphology of Thalassiosira coronifera have been obtained, the range of variability of some quantitative diagnostic characters (the number of areolae per 10 µm on the valve and its mantle, the length of rimoportula), ecology and distribution in the Black Sea were determined. An expanded diagnosis of the species is presented with an account of the original and literature data.
THE ROLE OF CHLOROPHYLLASE IN ADAPTION OF PLANTS TO LIGHT REGIMES
Chlorophyllase activity, pigments content and pigment ratio in three plant species of different ecological groups were studied. The studied taxa were light-requiring sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), shade-enduring cowslip (Primula veris L.), and shade-requiring hazelwort (Asarum europaeum L.). Plants were grown at high or low light intensities. Chlorophyllase activity was significantly higher in sugar beet leaves. Variations of light intensities weakly influenced on the enzyme activity and pigment content in leaves of cowslip and hazelwort. Chlorophyllase activity in leaves of these plants was 2.5–4 times below than in the leaves of sugar beet.
A high level of chlorophyllase activity in the light-requiring sugar beet plants indicated more active chlorophyll metabolism and the enzyme participation in adaptation of plants to different light regimes. Low enzyme activity and its weak dependence on the light intensity during plant growing allow us to conclude that chlorophyllase plays a minor role in catabolism of green pigments in these plant species.
DEVELOPMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES IN SOME SPECIES OF THE GENUS SPIRAEA L. AND ARUNCUS SYLVESTRIS RAFIN. (SPIRAEOIDEAE, ROSACEAE)
Formation of structurally unisexual flowers has been investigated in Aruncus sylvestris Rafin. Organogenesis of the flower has been studied in the genus Spiraea L. (Rosaceae). The ovule is crassinucellate with one integument. The number of archesporium cells is variable. The embryo sac is of the normal Polygonum-type. The seed reproduction as is usually sexual, endosperm nuclear. The embryo develops by the type Asterad var. Geum.
ANATOMY AND ULTRASTRUCTURE OF SEEDS IN SPECIES OF THE GENUS EUPHRASIA L. IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
The anatomic structure of spermoderma and ultrastructure of the seed surface in 18 species of Еuphrasia were studied. Based on the described characteristics of seeds ultrastructure, a comparative morphological analysis is conducted within the sections, subsections and species aggregates, representative carpologycal characteristics are detected, their calculation is conducted and subordination is established.
THE TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE GENUS CONRINGIA HEIST. EX FABR. (BRASSICACEAE)
The results of taxonomical revision of the genus Conringia are presented. The genus is accepted in classical volume, are included two section: Conringia and Planisiliqua Iljinskaja, sect. nov. (C. planisiliqua Fisch. et C.A. Meyer) and three subsection: Conringia (C. orientalis (L.) Andrz.); Austriacae Iljinskaja, subsect. nov. (C. austriaca (Jacq.) Sweet, C. grandiflora Boiss. et Heldr.); Clavatae Iljinskaja (C. persica Boiss., C. clavata Boiss.). Three species (C. orientalis, C. orientalis and C. clavata) for the flora of Ukraine are provided. Morphological features are discussed and the ecology, general geographical distribution, the investigated exsamples of species are deposited.
THE TAXONOMIC STRUCTURE of FLORA EAST POLISSYA
The flora of vascular of plants of East Polissya includes of 1315 species belonging to 569 genera of 138 families, its autochthonous fraction — 1047 species of 443 genera of 123 families, adventive — 268 species of 195 genera of 61 families. The flora of vascular plants East Polisssya has a boreal-moderate character and at the present stage, were under influence of the anthropic factor, achieves of thermoxerophilic feature. It was formed of the different centres of speciation, but with precise prevalence of Boreal and Mediterraneanones. The qualitative structure of leading families and genera of the spontaneous flora of East Polissya and its autochthonous fraction as a whole coincides. The insignificant differences in ranks of taxa are revealed. The generic composition of the adventive fraction essentially differs from the autochthonous and spontaneous flora of region.
ECOLOGICAL AND COENOTIC PECULIARITIES OF THE ALLIEN SPECIES AXIRIS AMARANTHOIDES L. (CHENOPODIACEAE) IN THE DESNIANSKO-STAROGUTSKY NATURAL NATURE PARK
The Axiris amaranthoides L. is a new alien species in Ukraine. The shames of species distributions in two villages on the north-eastern part country were made. The settlement’s square in village Novovasilivka (territory of the Desniansko-Starogutsky National Nature Park) is beside 70–75 ha. Other village Ochkyne is situated near National Park's territory. There Axiris amaranthoides was occupy lesser territory — 18–20 ha. A. amaranthoides is dominance in the ruderal plants community from alliances Arction lappae and Onopordion acanthii, which accordingly relate to the orders Artemisietaliavulgaris and Onopordetalia acanthii from class Artemisieteavulgaris. In community from order Polygonion avicularis (class Plantaginetea majoris) A. amaranthoides is dominance too. The populations density of the A. amaranthoides was calculated from 96,8 to 354,4 p./m2, thus moist plant biomas consist from 245,5 to 1772,0 g/m2.
THE MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND SEED SURFACE OF JUNCACEAE JUSS. SPECIES OF THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
The paper presents the results of morphological structure and seed surface studies of Juncaceae Juss. species of the Flora of Ukraine. Seeds of genus Juncus L. species have a smooth, ribbed or reticulate surface. A seed surface of genus Luzula DC. species consist of 6-angle, 5-angle, subglobose or rectangular cells.
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SPECIES OF THE GENERA KICKXIA, ANTIRRHINUM, MISOPATES, CHAENORHINUM, CYMBALARIA IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
Pollen grains of 8 species from 5 genera of the Antirrhineae tribe from the Eastern Europe were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of the studied species are 3-colporate, prolate, spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, small and middle sized. It is established that pollen grains are characterized by common sculpture type, which is reticulate. Based on the details of the sculpture found out by scanning electronic microscope pollen grains are divided into two groups: large reticulum and small reticulum. Diagnostic features on the genus level are structure of apertures, sculpture, shape and size of pollen grains. Genera Antirrhinum and Misopates are the most closely related after characteristics of the pollen grains.
NEW LOCALITY OF SPIRANTHES SPIRALIS (L.) CHEVALL. (ORCHIDACEAE JUSS.) IN UKRAINE
The paper presents information about new locality of rare orchid Spiranthes spiralis in Transcarpathia. New locality of S. spiralis was discovered in September 2006. In this locality 95 generative specimens were found.
SPIRANTHES SPIRALIS (L.) CHEVALL. (ORCHIDACEAE) FOUND ON THE TERRITORY OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS
It is reported of finding Spiranthesspiralis (L.) Chevall. (Orchidaceae) on the territory of the Ukrainian Carpathians, while earlier it wasn’t characteristic of this species to grow on the given territory.
NEW LOCATION OF NYMPHOIDESPELTATA (S.G. GMEL.) O. KUNTZE IN LVIV REGION
It is reported about new location of Nymphoidespeltata on the territory of Lviv region. Characteristic of location as well as a map of cover of pond is given. The map of spreading of the species on the territory is presented. The modern state and nessesary of protection of this species on the territory of Lviv region is discussed.
SYNANTROPION VEGETATION OF TRANSFORMED BIOTOPS OF CHERNIGIV REGION
On the basis of original investigation of synantropion vegetation of Chernigiv region six types of antropogenically altered biotops were evaluated, is given their get fat feature (phytocenotic characteristic, structure of biotops and ecology) and is organized collation with categorization EUNIS. In these biotops are presented segetal, ruderal vegetation, clearings and vegetation of the class Plantaginetea majoris get complete feature.
FIRST RECORDS OF SCLEROTINIA MINOR JAGGER (SCLEROTINIACEAE) ON ORCHIDS IN UKRAINE
Sclerotinia minor Jagger (Sclerotiniaceae) is reported on orchids for the first time in Ukraine. In 1998 the fungus was recorded on single plants of Anacamptispalustris (Jacq.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W. Chase(Orchis palustris Jacq.) in Chornomorsky Biosphere Reserve (Kherson oblast). In 2004 it was also found on A. laxiflora (Lam.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W. Chasein the same reserve. Several years later, S. minor causes decline of these orchids and other two species, A. picta (Loisel.) R.M. Bateman and A. coriophora (L.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W. Chase, in Chornomorsky Biosphere Reserve and Kinburnsky Regional Landscape Park (Mykolaiv oblast). The last two species appear to be more susceptible to the disease. As much as 85—100 % of their generative plants in observed communities were infected and collapsed. It is suggested that S. minor could be found on orchids in other countries of the Black sea region.
D.V. Leontyev, I.O. Dudka, T.I. Kryvomaz
NEW RECORDS OF FUNGI LISTED IN THE RED DATA BOOK OF UKRAINE IN ODESSA REGION
Information about new frecords of Morchellasteppicola Zerova and Mutinus caninus (Huds.) Fr. is presented. These fungi are listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine.
THE GOSPEL EVOLUTION TO PLANTS’ OSMOTIC PHENOMENONS
The gospel evolution on formation of plants’ osmotic phenomenons is considered in this article. It is shown that they are based on clear earlier gas laws. It is established the heterogeneous of osmotic components, which the mineral always has the rated concentration smaller according organic one, but it is determined the high osmotic pressure.
The paper considers spatial and temporal dynamics of the phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentration throughout the entire river Teteriv water area including six water reservoirs and several tributaries. Close direct correlation with high reliabi