ON THE ORIGIN OF DIOECIOUS AMARANTHS (AMARANTHUS L., AMARANTHACEAE JUSS.)
Dioecious amaranths (Amaranthus subgen. Acnida (L.) Aellen ex K.R. Robertson) are represented by three groups recognized by Mosyakin & Robertson as sections Acnida (L.) Mosyakin & K.R. Robertson, Saueranthus Mosyakin & K.R. Robertson, and Acanthochiton (Torrey) Mosyakin & K.R. Robertson. Judging from available morphological and phytogeographical evidence, dioecy is a derived character in Amaranthus. Most probably dioecy evolved in plants growing in open habitats, such as coastal areas, river valleys, disturbed plant communities, deserts, semi-deserts, and prairies. It was accompanied by development of several adaptive morphological traits in some groups (perianth reduction for more successful cross-pollination through anemophily, indehiscent utricles for more successful hydro- and anemochory, etc.).
Dioecious amaranths probably independently evolved from monoecious ancestors at least twice, and thus monophyly of subgen. Acnida is questionable.
TYPIFICATION AND CRITICAL TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS DESCRIBED FROM THE UKRAINE SPECIES OF THE FAMILE APIACEAE LINDL.: GENERA ANGELICA L. — FERULAGO C. KOCH
The list of species of Apiaceae Lindl. (genera: Angelica L. — Ferulago C. Koch) described from Ukraine, incl. Crimea, is presented. Typification were carried out on the base of the analysis of protologs and study of authentic herbarium material. Literature citations, basionym, type and place of keeping, ecological and chorological pecularities and new taxonomical information are presented for each species.
GENISTELLA SAGITTALIS (L.) GAMS (FABACEAE) IN UKRAINE
Distribution of Genistella sagittalis (L.) Gams (Fabaceae) in Ukraine is considered. Since 1950th years there has been found 5 localities of the species in the Ukrainian Carpathians. The species is entered into the Red Data Book of Ukraine (1996). The authors revealed Genistella sagittalis in the West Polissia in Tsuman'ska Pushcha (Kivertsivs'ky rayon of Volyn'ska oblast). This locality is characterized in the article. Before the species has been found in Manevyts'y rayon of Volyn'ska oblast. In opinion of a number of researchers it expands its area in norh-east direction.
GENTIANA NIVALIS L. (GENTIANACEAE) IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINIAN CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS
Gentiana nivalis L. in the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians (m. Dragobrat, Svydovets Mountains) earlier known from literature is confirmed.
THE ECOLOGI С-COENOTICAL SPECIFICS OF THE FORESTS OF THE CHERKASKO-CHYHYRYNSKY GEOBOTANY DISTRICT
The ecologiс-coenotical specifics of the forests of the Cherkassko — Chyhyrynsky geobotany district have been studied. The identified communities belong to 4 classes (Querco — Fagetea, Vaccinio — Piceetea, Pulsatillo — Pinetea, Alnetea glutiniosae), 5 orders, 6 alliances. Regulation of differentiation of alliances of the forests Cherkassko — Chyhyrynsky geobotany district determine values of ecologic factors.
ON CONSERVATION OF A VALUABLE MEADOW-STEPPE HABITATS ON CHALK OUTCROPS OF THE DESNA PLATEAU (SUMY REGION, UKRAINE)
Rare species and a rare plant community found in the territory of the Desna Plateau (Sumy Region, Ukraine) are characterized. Among them, there are 1 species included in the Red Data Book of Ukraine (Stipa pennata L.) and 9 species from the list of rare species of Sumy Region. One community from the Green Data Book of Ukraine was also revealed (Stipeta pennatae). Dianthus andrzejowskianus (Zapal) Kulcz. is proposed for inclusion into the list of rare species of Sumy Region.
DIVERSITY OF SOME PHYTOSYSTEMS WITH DIFFERENT LEVEL OF INTEGRITY
Gradual increase of value of diversity indications is observed in diversity dynamics according to successional phytosystems integrity, in spite of general species amount decrease at the end of succession. In regard to specificity of community surroundings the implementation of alternative diversity principle is observed while within modular biosystem of organismic integrity level the diversity at different management levels is generally positively correlated. It is possible that this principle observance can be one of the features for distinguishing systems of orgаnismic degree of integrity or may become the basis for elaboration of quantitative indication of system integrity.
DISTRIBUTION AND CURRENT STATE OF THE CRIMEAN POPULATIONS OF TRITICUM BOEOTICUM BOISS. (POACEAE )
During 2001-2002 in the Sevastopol region (Crimea, Ukraine) 31 localities of Triticum boeoticum Boiss. (Poaceae) were found. Geobotanical descriptions of 28 of them were done for the first time in Ukraine. Area, quantity and current state of each locality were determined. Information about distribution of Puccinia graminis on T. boeoticum is given. This fungus was recorded on T. boeoticum for the first time in Ukraine. The influence of different factors on vitality of populations is shown.
THE FIRST RECORD OF SPOROPHAGOMYCES CHRYSOSTOMUS (BERK. ET BR.) K. POLDMAA ET SAMUELS (HYPOCREACEAE ) IN UKRAINE
Description and collections of the new for the Ukraine territory of mycophylous ascomycetes Sporophagomyces chrysostomus are provided.
SOME NEW AND RARE RECORDS OF ASCOMYCETES IN UKRAINE
Records of ascomycetes including anamorphic ascomycetes, Robergea cubicularis (Fr.) Rehm, Tympanis saligna Tode and Sirodothis saligna (Hohn.) B. Sutton & A. Funk, new for Ukraine are reported. For each the taxonomic position, description, distribution and illustrations are given. Brief comments on related species and on other species of these genera occurring in Ukraine are provided. Two infrequently recorded species, Cytonaema spinellum (Kalchbr.) Hohn. and Trimmatostroma scutellare (Berk. et Broome) M.B. Ellis, are also reported.
CULTURAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEDICINAL MUSHROOM SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE FR. (BASIDIOMYCETES) ON AGAR NUTRIENT MEDIA
The growth and morphological features of medicinal mushroom Schizophyllum commune Fr. from the Culture collection of Mushrooms (ІВК) of the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany NASU (Kyiv) were investigated on four agar media at temperatures +4°, +20°, +28° and +37°С. The most favorable for the growth of the majority of 21 investigated strains were beer-wort agar and temperature +20°-28°С. 67% of tested strains can be regarded as fast growing cultures and 33% may be regarded as ones with average growth rate. The growth rate on potato-glucose agar some strains was as well as on beer-wort agar. The growth of investigated strains was more slow on two tested synthetic media. Primordia were formed in cultures on beer-wort agar and potato-dextrose agar at +20°-28°С on 8-14 days after inoculation. All investigated strains grew well at temperature +37°С and did not loose their viability at temperature +4°С.
Micromorphological structures of vegetative mycelium (clamp connections, excretoric cells, anastamoses) were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Anastamoses and excretoric cells were more frequently met in older parts of colony.
ABOUT PRESENCE GRIFOLA FRONDOSA (FR.) S. GREY IN THE NORTH OF DONETSK AREA
In article the data on a find rare species Grifola frondosa in National Nature Park “Svyaty Gory” is given. The location of fungus and feature of fruit bodies are described.
CULTURAL PECULIARITIES OF WOOD-DESTROYING MUSHROOM POLYPORUS SQAMOSUS (HUDS.) FR. (BASIDIOMYCOTA).
Natural complex and synthetic nutritive media (MA, CA, PGA, NA, CzA) were used for the investigation of cultural peculiarities of 10 Polyporus squamosus strains at various temperatures (4°, 22°, 28° and 37°C). The morphological features of mushroom colonies and rate of radial mycelium growth in different strains of P. squamosus were established. The better temperature for P. squamosus radial mycelium growth was determined as 28°C. The presence of several oxydases and amilolytic, proteolytic, lipolytic, cellulolytic and pectolytic enzymes were revealed by the method of qualitative reactions. Obtain data give possibility to guarantee the purity of the culture in the further use of this mushroom in creation of technology.
NEW AND RARE LICHEN-FORMING AND LICHENICOLOUS FUNGI FROM THE CARMEL MOUNTAINS, ISRAEL
Eighteen new species of lichen-forming fungi (Agonimia tristicula, Amandinea punctata, Bacidia trachoma, Bispora christiansennii, Caloplaca obscurella, C. polycarpa, Cladonia pyxidata, Collema callopismum, Dirina stenhammari, Graphis scripta, Muellerella lichenicola, Opegrapha demutata, Phoma caloplacae, Rinodina sophodes, Topelia nimisiana, T. rosea, Verrucaria macrostoma, Xanthoriicola physciae) are recorded for Israel. Descriptions including synonyms, references on diagnosis, distribution in Israel, and general distribution (after style of “The First Checklist of the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of Israel”) are provided for each taxon. Twenty one lichen-forming and lichenicolous taxa (Arthonia molendoi, Caloplaca citrina, C. haematites, Collema crispum, C. flaccidum, Guignardia olivieri, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Lecanora crenulata, L. dispersa, L. hagenii, Lecidella euphoria, Parmelia verruculifera, Physcia semipinnata, P. stellaris, P. tenella, Placynthium nigrum, Protoparmeliopsis muralis, Tornabea scutellifera, Xanthoanaptychia lacunosa, Xanthoria calcicola, X. schistidii), which are recorded for the first time for some regions of Israel, are listed as well. New localities for another 9 lichen species (Aspicilia cinerea, Caloplaca conglomerata, Clauzadea immersa, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia distorta, Ramalina maciformis, Tephromela atra, Toninia aromatica, and Verrucaria nigrescens) associated with other rare lichens are also provided.
PLACOPYRENIUM O. BREUSS (LICHENS, VERRUCARIACEAE) — A NEW GENUS FOR LICHEN FLORA OF CRIMEA PENINSULA
The data on new for Crimean peninsula genus Placopyrenium O. Breuss and two new for Ukraine species P. bucekii (J. Nadv. & M. Servit) O. Breuss and P. tatrense (Vezda) O. Breuss are reported.
CHANGE CONTENTS OF PIGMENTS AND ORGANIC CARBON IN INFECTED HETEROBASIDION ANNOSUM (FR.) BREF SEEDLINGS PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.
Dynamics of changes of the contents of green and yellow pigments in infected Heterobasidion annosum seedlings Pinus sylvestris received from seeds of black and beige colors were investigated. It is established, that in reply to infection H. annosum there is an intensification of photosynthesis at all seedlings of a pine. The increase in a chlorophyll a begins for 9 day of pathogenesis and by 12 day it is observed already under influence of all investigated isolates. Heterobasidion annosum would cause also changes in synthesis of a chlorophyll b for 9 and 12 day of infection at action of the some isolates. Changes in the correlation chlorophylls а/b are found out, that speaks due to increase in synthesis of a chlorophyll a. As a result of penetration H. annosum into seedlings P. sylvestris synthesis of yellow pigments that specifies their protective role at attack of a plant by a fungus pathogen.
THE INFLUENCE OF CLINOROTATION ON CHROMATIN CONFORMATION STATE AND FIRST CELL CYCLE KINETICS BY PEA SEEDS GERMINATION
There was study the character of chromatin conformation state change by cytofluorometric method with acridin orange, the intensity of DNA synthesis by flow cytometry, and the mitotic activity of pea roots meristems by slow clinorotation (2 r/min). The increasing of early chromatin decondensation was established during 6 hours, when cells go out from quiet stage, but in G1-phase this process is stimulating. The entering of meristematic cells in G1-phase and mitosis take place on 3 hours later than in control, because prereplication period of first cell cycle is elongates. It's correlate with decrease of root growth intensity during first 6 days of germination. Under clinorotation effect on permanent mitotic cycle was observed the delay in G2-phase of cycle cell's progression. Obtained data showed that altered gravity influences on conformation state of chromatin, on mitotic activity of meristema, and the reaction of particular cells adaptation could take place only at first 3-6 hours of present factor action.
Yu.R. Shelyag-Sosonko, V.S. Tkachenko, T.L. Andrienko, Ya.I. Movchan
ECONET OF UKRAINE AND ITS NATURE KERNELS
The article deals with justification of the zonal ecocorridors ot the national importance first in according with implementation of the Law of Ukraine "On the National Program for the Econet Formation of Ukraine for 2000-2015". It is described the basic principles and indicators of their geographic position and brief characterization of biodiversity. conservation of which the ecocorridors proposed will provide The necessity to establish the 13 ecocorridors of the national importance for Ukraine is grounded in the article. It is also represented an elaborated scheme of each of ecocorridors description including following obligate components: 1) the list of especially valuable biodiversity for conservation of which it is planned to establish a concrete ecocorridor; 2) examples of endemic — relict and rare plant and animal species for each of them; 3) quantity of rare plant and animal species of the Red Data Book of Ukraine; 4) quantity of syntaxa of the Green Data Book of Ukraine. Standartization of the scheme's indicators allows both to assess the contribution of each of ecocorridors to conserve biodiversity and to assess on the whole the tendency of their changes in 5 — 10 years. The аuthors analyze the principal difficulties of the zonal econet formation in Ukraine.
NEW SPECIES OF LICHEN-FORMING FUNGI FROM GOLAN HEIGHTS, ISRAEL
28 species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi (Arthonia clemens, Caloplaca biatorina, Candelaria concolor, Candelariella reflexa, C. subdeflexa, C. xanthostigma, Chrysothrix candelaris, Lecanora carpinea, L. leptyrodes, Leptogium cyanescens, L. lichenoides, Leptorhaphis atomaria, Oxneria ulophyllodes, Parmelia exasperata, P. acetabulum, Pertusaria albescens, P. amara, Phaeophyscia hirsuta, P. nigricansi, P. orbicularis, Phlyctis argena, Protothelenella sphinctrinoidella, Ramalina fraxinea, Rhizocarpon polycarpum, Rinodina sophodes, Rusavskia elegans, R. sorediata, and Umbilicaria grisea) new for Israel are recorded. Descriptions including synonyms, reference on the diagnosis, distribution in Israel, and general distribution (after the style of "The First Checklist of the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of Israel" ) are provided for each taxon.
A NEW LICHEN GENERA FOR UKRAINE
The descriptions, locations, ecology and geography of the four new for Ukraine lichens genera Epigloea Zukal, Heteroplacidium Breuss, Leucocarpia Vezda and Sarcopyrenia Nyl. with species Epigloea filifera Dobbl., E. soleiformis Dobbl., Heteroplacidium phaeocarpoides (Nyl.) Breuss, Leucocarpia biatorella (Arnold) Vezda and Sarcopyrenia gibba (Nyl.) Nyl. are reported.
NEW AND RARE FOR UKRAINE LICHEN SPECIES FROM THE MEDOBORY NATURE RESERVE
Two lichen species (namely Endocarpon pallidum Ach., Toninia diffracta (Massal.) Zahlbr.) from the Medobory Nature Reserve, as new for Ukraine, and 20 species as rare or new for its plane part are reported. A full description for the Endocarpon pallidum species is provided. Full lists of localities for all taxa mentioned (Acrocordia salweyi (Leight. ex Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Caloplaca crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier, C. dalmatica (Massal.) H. Olivier, C. inconnexa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., C. polycarpa (A. Massal.) Zahlbr., Candelariella rhodax Poelt & Vezda, Cladonia hungarica (Arnold) Vainio, Opegrapha variaeformis Anzi, Polycoccum marmoratum (Krempelh.) D. Hawksw., Rinodina immersa (Korber) Zahlbr., Thelidium papulare (Fr.) Arnold, Verrucaria dolosa Hepp — species new for the plane part; Acrocordia conoidea (Fr.) Korber, Candelariella oleiifera H. Maggn., Catillaria lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr., Lecanora albescens (Hoffm.) Branth & Rostr., Lecidella stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuck., Lepraria lobificans Nyl., Thelidium decipiens (Hepp) Krempel., Verrucaria aethiobola Wahlenb. in Ach. — species rare for the plane part of Ukraine) are included.
TO STUDY OF LICHEN IN THE UKRAINIAN POLISSYA
History of the study of lichens in the Ukrainian Polissya is analysed. First information about lichens in the given region is dated from 1830, but only after 1925 studies of this region have become regular. A.M. Oxner, V.R. Maslova, S.D. Zelenko have made the most valuable contribution to the study of lichens in the Ukrainian Polissya. Some data on lichens from single localities of Ukrainian Polissya are in the papers of M.F. Makarevich, O.G. Roms, L.I. Frantsevich, O.B. Blum, S.Ya. Kondratyuk, I.L. Navrotskaya, O.Ye. Khodosovtsev. At present 338 species of lichens and 12 species of lichenicolous fungi are found in Ukrainian Polissya. Southern administrative regions of Volyns'ka, Rivnen and Zhytomyr oblasts (within Polissya), and northern regions of L'viv, Ternopil and Khmel'nyts'k oblasts found to be in urgent need of special study as poorly the investigated badly or not investigated regions in respect to lichens.
TO THE STUDY OF LICHEN PHOTOBIONTS OF OUTCROPS GRANITE-STEPPE POBUZHIA
Photobionts of 9 widespead lichens upon the granite outcrops are investigeted. The investigations were carried out using direct microscoping and cultural methods of investigation. The exact data concerning photobionts were firrstly brought for 8 species of lichens. It is established that lichens such as Aspicilia contorta var. hoffmanniana, Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia somloensis, Ramalina polymorpha, Umbilicaria grisea contain just the same specie of photobiont — Trebouxia showmanii, Caloplaca aractina and Physcia tribacia — T. simplex, Physcia tenella — T. phycobiontica. There were exposed 2 new species of algae or for the Ukrainian flora.
BLUE - GREEN ALGAE OF THE CARPATHIAN BIOSPHERE RESERVE
Paper deals with results of the first special study of blue-greens of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve. Totally 110 species (120 forms) belonging to 29 genera of Cyanophyta were identified (Ugolsko - Shyrocoluzhansky site — 66(70); Chornohirsky — 45(47), Kuziy — 37(39), Marmarosh — 23, "Dolyna Nartsysiv" — 20. In aquatic localities 93 species (96 forms ) of Cyanophyta were revealed, among them 63 species (66 forms) in flowing water, and 56 species in stagnant. In terrestrial localities we found 42 species of cyanophytes, including 11 species found on the trunks of trees, stones, rocks, and 37 species from the soil. 67 taxa turned to be new records for the Ukrainian Carpathians, among them 17 species (18 forms) are rare for Ukraine. Xenococcus rivularis (Hansg.) Geitler, Chamaesiphon minimus Schmidle, Chamaesiphon oncobyrsoides Geitler, Geitleribactron subaequale (Geitler) Komarek, Phormidium subfuscum Kutz. ex Gomontf. inaequale (Nageli) Elenkin, Hydrocoleus muscicola Hansg., Homoeothrix balearica ( Bornet et Flahault ) Lemmerm. f. tenuis (W. et G. S. West) V. Poljansk. are first cited for Ukraine.
AXYRIS AMARANTHOIDES L. (CHENOPODIACEAE VENT.), A NEW ALIEN SPECIES IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
Axyris amaranthoides L. (Chenopodiaceae) is reported from several localities in Sumy Region of Ukraine. It is the first record of this alien species from Ukraine. Morphological descriptions of the genus and species and brief descriptions of its localities are provided.
POLYGONUM ALPESTRE C.A. MEY. (POLYGONACEAE) — NEW FOR FLORA EAST EUROPAEA ALIEN SPECIES
A smol colony of the new alien (adventive) species for the Easten Europaea flora Polygonum alpestre C.A. Mey was found at the tinned food factory in Kherson (southern Ukraine). A description of the species and pecularities of the habitat are given.
SPECIES OF THE GENUS ALYSSUM L. (SECT. ALYSSUM) IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
The results of taxonomical revision of the genus Alyssum L. and its species of the sect. Alyssum, growing on territory of Ukraine are presented. The genus is accepted in narrow volume, are included 2 subgenus (Alyssum and Odontarrhena (C.A. Mey.) Iljinskaja) and 5 sections (Odontarrhena (C.A. Mey.) Koch, Samarifera (Dudl.) Iljinskaja, Tetradenia (Spach) Dudl., Lamosepalum (Hauskn.) Dudl., Alyssum). The section Alyssum it is divided into 3 subsections: Alyssum, Desertorum Iljinskaja and Psilonema (C.A. Mey.) Iljinskaja. For all 14 species available in the flora of Ukraine the diagnostic features and the d istribution within the limits of Ukraine are specified, and also the nomenclature information, the peculiarities of ecology and of biology and chromosomal numbers is given. For A. calycocarpum Rupr. 3 new varieties are described. 6 species (endemics and species at the limit of natural distribution) demand the special control, and the disappearing A. gmelinii — protection.
MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES POLLEN GRAINS OF THE GENUS POLYCNEMUM L. (CHENOPODIACEAE VENT.)
Results of palynomorphological studies of the genera Polycnemum and Nitrophila (Chenopodiaceae Vent.) are presented. Pollen grains of these genera characterized by peculiar morphological characters (shape and outline, pollen grain and pore diameter, distance between pores, number of pores, exine peculiarities) that clearly distinguish them from pollen grains of other representatives Chenopodiaceae. Pollen of Polycnemum in the flora of Ukraine is promising for pollen analysis.
NEW FLORISTIC RECORDS OF ALIEN SPECIES OF VASCULAR PLANTS IN THE DESNA PLATEAU AREA (SUMY REGION, UKRAINE)
Data are presented on new localities and distribution of alien species Impatiens glandulifera Royle, Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray, Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier et Levier, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and naturalization of some ornamental species (Rosa rugosa, Sorbaria sorbifolia, etc.) in the Desna Plateau area of Sumy Region, Ukraine.
BROMOPSIS INERMIS (LEYS.) HOLUB (POACEAE BАRNHART) IN MULTISPECIFIC MODELLED PLANT COMMUNITIES
The influence of different number of species in modelled plant communities on the development of B. inermis was studied under the conditions of field experiment. The investigations were conducted in 5 variants of plant communities where the number of components gradually increased. It has been revealed that the presence of other graminoid species exert negative influence on the development of individuals of this species. The peculiarities of the influence depend upon specific composition of graminoids in plant communities. However, multispecific composition produces positive effect on survival of B. inermis individuals that is provided owing to species redistribution in different ecologic niches.
PHYTOCOENOTIC DIVERSITY OF THE DZHARYLHACH ISLAND (KHERSON REGION)
Vegetation's syntaxonomical structure of the Dzharylhach Island numbered 44 associations belonging to 16 alliances and 11 classes has been identified. It is given the classification scheme of vegetation, phytocoenotic table, dispersal characteristics of the main syntaxa. Phytocoenotic diversity of the island is represented by wide spectrum of communities of different organization type — from aquatic to psammophyte-steppe with coenotic peculiarity. Phytocoenotic uniqueness is considerable number of regionally rare and perishing associations. Phytosozological assessment of coenotic diversity in the island has found the high degree of its rarity. It is discussed the problem of the island's biodiversity conservation.
“SUCCESSION COLLAPSE” OF THE STEPPE ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
In the review attempt to consider one of the specific stage full succession steppe vegetation — “succession collapse” is undertaken from the point of view of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The ecological system is treated as strongly non equilibrium thermodynamic system which development connected to presence bifurcation mechanism which action is shown minimum two equally probable directions of development. Realization any from them casual process which influence both external and internal factors. However, the direction of self-development systems is defined by a principle of a minimum energy necessary for maintenance of structure that is bright illustrate processes reestablishment of vegetation cover of steppes.
PHENOTYPICAL CHANGES OF SIUM LATIFOLIUM L. LEAVES UNDER INFLUENCE OF WATER DEFICITE
The comparative analysis of mesophyll cells ultrastructure and the pigments content have been carried in leaves of Sium latifolium L., which was grown in natural conditions in water and in land. The distinguishing features in investigated cell ultrastructure and in chlorophyll a and b, and carotynoids content were established. These differences testify about the influence of moderate water deficit and light to structural-functional cell organization of S. latifolium photosynthesizing cells.
S.L. Mosyakin, M.M. Fedoronchuk
WHAT KIND OF “FLORA OF UKRAINE” DO WE NEED?
The article provides a concise overview of the present situation with floristic and taxonomic publications and research related to vascular plants of Ukraine and outlines main tasks of Ukrainian plant taxonomy from the viewpoint of studies and conservation of biodiversity. Various issues of the format, preparation and publication of the new Flora of Ukraine are discussed.
EMBRYO CELL SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE SOME SPECIES OF THE SEEDS CHARACTERIZING WITH THE DEEP PHYSIOLOGY QUIESCENCE
Seed embryo cell ultrastructure of eight plant species (Acer tataricum L., Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt., Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell., Cornus mas L., Lunaria rediviva L., Malus domestica Borkh., Oxalis stricta L., Prunus domestica L.), that are in the deep physiology quiescence and able to germinate only after the long cold stratification was studied. It was shown that embryo cells have the similar ultrastructure regardless of the seed species. There is a great amount of storage substances (up to eighty percents of the cell volume) represented with the protein and lipid bodies. Cytoplasm of the roughly granular structure as small reticules is arranged among the storage substances. Membranes undergo the essential changes appearing in the loss of the typical lamellar structure and contrast. Identification of the cell organelles is complicated due to the membrane structure alterations.
The possible links between the peculiarities of the embryo cell structure and the depth of the seed quiescence are discussed.
EFFECT OF GRAVITY ON PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS OF PROTONEMATA POTTIA INTERMEDIA (TURN.) FURNR., POTTIALES
It has been experimentally established that protonemata having grown in darkness accelerates its development in light. Accelerated development is manifested in intensive protonemata branching and active transformation its tip cells into gametophore buds. Formation of buds from tip protonemal cells on periphery of a growth expansion do not correspond in full to normal development during which buds lay down, as a rule, in the center of protonemal mat. Tip formation of buds is in the best way expressed in haploid dark-grown protonemata of Pottia intermedia, diploid aposporic protonema regenerates and grows weaker than haploid one in darkness. Both haploid and diploid protonemata start to develop intensively after being transferred into light. However, the haploid protonema differs from diploid one in succession of bud formation. Rhizoids of haploid gametophores arise from basal cells of buds. In diploid protonema at first filaments of rhizoid type appear and only afterwards in a centre of filament bundles buds develop. The experiments with 10-7-5x10-5 m of exogenous kinetin have shown that kinetin effect, being intensified with elevation of kinetin concentration, is still stronger expressed on diploid protonemata. Auxins were also found to participate in bud formation. It was established that acid 3x10-6-3x10-5 m phytotropin NPA (naphthylphthalamic acid) blocks bud formation and the addition of 10-6 m a-NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) eliminates the inhibitory effect of NPA.
GENTIANA L. SPECIES OF UKRAINIAN FLORA IN NATURE AND IN CULTURE IN VITRO
Comparative analysis of the literature data and the results of our researches concerning Gentiana L. species spread in Ukraine and their ecological peculiarities has been done. Gentiana pharmacological features and their application in traditional and non-traditional medicine were characterized. Expedience of biotechnological approach for rare Gentiana L. species preservation in flora of Ukraine and obtaining of biosynthetically active cell and tissue cultures as a promising raw material source for the pharmaceutical industry was substantiated.
INFLUENCE OF A URBANIZATION ON A CONDITION OF POPULATIONS OF MODELLING RUDERAL PLANTS (SUMY)
The features of growth, form-building and reproduction at eight species of ruderal plants on a gradient of increase of anthropogenous loadings in conditions of Sumy-city are considered. Is shown, that the reaction on urbanistic natural environment is individual and depends on a species of plants. At ruderal plants on an urbanization gradient general decrease of the sizes of plants with reduction of amplitude of a variation on the size, exception preadaptation to anthropogenous loadings Chenopodium album. The age spectra of populations in conditions of city were basically stable, whereas vitality spectra essentially varied in different zones of city. On a level of sensitivity to anthropogenous loadings investigated plants was divided on three groups.
FLORAL FIHDINGS ON THE TERRITORY OF SHOSTKA GEOBOTANICAL DISTRICT (SUMY REGION)
The revealing of location (verebauts) of rare and little spread species of highest vascular plants of Ukraine's flora in the territory of Shostka geobotanical district is informed in the article. Among them there are three species included in the Supplement I of the Bern convention, fourteen ones in the Red book of Ukraine and twenty four species which are protected on the territory of Sumy region. The locations of such rare species as: Botrychium multifidum (S.G. Gmel.) Rupr., Ostericum palustre (Bess.) Hoffm., Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm. ex Bernh.) Schult., Listera ovata (L.) R. Br., Lilium martagon L., Lycopodium annotinum L., Neottia nidus-avis (L.) Rich., Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich. and Viola epipsila Ledeb., Peucedanum cervaria (L.) Lapeyr, Laserpitium latifolium L., Dracocephalum ruyschiana L., Dianthus pseudosguarrosus (Novak) Klok. as well are characterized in the article.
ANATOMY-MORPHOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF VEGETATIVE ORGANES PINUS KOCHIANA KLOTZSCH IN THE CONNECTION WITH DYNAMICS OF GROWTH CONDITIONS
The anatomy-morphological of vegetative organes Pinus kochiana Klotzsch at the natural spreads of the Mountainous Crimea were studied. The characteristics of variability of anatomy-morphological sing of sprouts and needles is given the connection with dynamics of growth conditions.
THE NEW DATA OF DISTRIBUTION AND SYSTEMATICS OF SOME SPECIES BRASSICACEAE OF THE FLORAE OF UKRAINE
Alyssum parviflorum M. Bieb. is represented only on Southern coast of Crimea (from valley Laspi up to hills Karadag), Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. — only in the western part of Ukraine. B. verna (Miller) Ascherson and Lepidium pinnatifidum Ledeb. are excluded from the flora of Crimea. However L. pinnatifidum is represented on a continental part of Ukraine. L. ruderale L. var. poltavensis (var. nova) is described from Ukraine. The new locality Arabis verna (L.) R. Br. and Sisymbrium irio L. are informed. Biomorphological features Sobolewskia sibrica (Willd.) P.W. Ball. are specified.
LIGULARIA SIBIRICA (L.) CASS. (ASTERACEAE) IN THE CHORNOHORA MOUNTAINS (UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS): POPULATION — ONTOGENETIC PARAMETERS, MORPHOLOGY, TAXONOMY AND CONSERVATION
A new find of Ligularia sibirica is reported from the Chornohora Mts., which is the first record for that region and for Transcarpathia. Its exact location is given on the map. Ontogenetic characteristics, population parameters and some conservation considerations are presented. The population is highly vital, numbers about 1500 flowering individuals and seems to be the largest in Ukraine. The morphological data obtained prove that the plants from the Chornohora do not correspond to the description of Ligularia bucovinensis — an ambiguous "microspecies" that is supposed to occur in Ukraine.
ABOUT THE NEW HABITAT OF BETULA BORYSTHENICA KLOK. IN THE LOWER REACHES OF THE PIVDENNYI BUG RIVER
The new habitat of Betula borysthenica Klok. in the lower reaches of the Pivdennyi Bug is found. The species is found on the sand arena of the Pivdennyi Bug to the south of Galitsinovka village Zhovtnevy district, Nikolaev region, not far from Nikolaev clay aluminium plant. It is the only area with Betula borysthenica Klok. in the lower reaches of the Pivdennyi Bug. All the other habitats, known by literature and herbariums are destriyed. The area is proposed to protection.
NEW FOR SCIENCE SPECIE OF NECKMOULD FROM RIGHT-BANK BLACK SEA AREA
It is brought description of new for science specie of Astragalus visunicus Kuczerevskij (neckmould visunskiy) near to Crimean endemic A. similis Boriss. Is given the general description of specie habitat.
SYSTEMATIC STRUCTURE OF THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN LEFT-BANK GEOBOTANICAL DISTRICT
The results of flora analysis of systematic structure of the Northern left-bank geobotanical district flora are presented. The flora is represented by 1114 species, 483 genera, 114 families and 5 divisions. Using Kendell's coefficient t the degree of spectra similarity of leading families of some left-bank Ukraine flora and the Northern left-bank geobotanical district flora was determined. The leading families and genera show combination of the prevailing boreal mediterranean components, emphasizing the transitional forest-steppe character of the investigated flora.
FUNGI OF THE OLYNE BOG (NOVGOROD-SIVERS'K POLISSIA)
The species diversity of the fungi from the Olyne bog are presented for the first time. 58 taxa of fungi of 43 genera and 24 families are recorded. The diagnosis and illustrations of the new for Ukraine species Hymenoscyhus pileatus (P. Karst.) Kuntze, Dasyscyphus callimorphus (P. Karst.) Sacc., Melanopsamella vermicularioides (Sacc. et Roum.) Reblova, M.E. Barr et Samuels and Lasiosphaeria caudata (Fuckel) Sacc. are given as well as the list of all fungi collected on the Olyne bog. The occurrence of 17 rare for Ukraine species is noted. Diversity of the fungi in main types of bogs is analyzed.
PHYTOMICROEPIPHYTON IN THE VARIOUS STRETCHES OF THE TETERIV RIVER: ITS STRUCTURE AND PIGMENT COMPLEX
The paper considers the structure of the epiphytic algal communities developing upon the plant substrata in the various stretches of the river Teteriv. The temporal periodicity of chlorophyll accumulation has been studied. The samples of phytomicroepiphyton were collected during the summer of 2004.
NEW AND RARE BRYOPHYTES FOR THE UKRAINIAN POLISSYA
Data are presented on findings of 13 rare Bryophyta species, 7 of them (Brachythecium reflexum, B. starkei, Dichodontium pellucidum, Orthotrichum lyellii, Reboulia hemisphaerica, Taxiphyllum wisgrillii, Bryum tenuisetum) are new for the Ukrainian Polissya; besides of it the last taxon is also new for Ukraine. Epilitic bryophytes reflect specific features of the bryophyte flora of the Zhytomyr Polissya.
ECOLOGICAL-COENOTIC ASPECTS OF CORRELATION OF FOREST AND STEPPE ECOSYSTEMS
The problem of forest and steppe causing sharp discussions requires thorough analysis including thermodynamics aspects, in particular analysis of accumulation and transformation of energy defining ecosystems stability and development. Energy potentials and flows of various blocks of forest and steppe ecosystems were compared. Analysis of quantitative data indicates that energy is accumulated in the biomass of forest ecosystems that are characterized by high energy capacity and in the subterranean part of steppe ecosystems (mainly due to the high concentration of humus in the potent chernozems). The biotic block of steppe ecosystems is characterized with a high energy turnover that outweighs turnover of forest 16-fold. Furthermore, entropy indicators of the biotic block of steppe ecosystems (0.48) are higher than those of forest ecosystems (0.035). The latter trait defines the type of succession. Energy comes out as a driving force of succession directed at counteracting changes caused by the environmental impact, entropy decrease, and increase of ecosystems self-organization due to the accumulation of energy in the epiterranean (forest) and subterranean (steppe) blocks.
SYNPHYTOINDICATIONAL AFTER FIRE CHANGES ECOTOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MEADOW STEPPE “MIKHAYLIVSKA TZILINA” ON SUMY REGION (UKRAINE)
Using data detailed research on reserved site of the meadow steppe “Mikhaylivska Tzilina” carried out in 2001 in frameworks the program of monitoring of self-development phytosystems, authors have repeatedly described phytocoenosis after the fire which happened in April 2003. The method computer phytoindication has enabled to define parameters of conducting ecological factors such us general thermal mode (Tm), soil humidity (Hd), acidity (Rc), riches of nitrogen (Nt) and carbonate (Ca) concentration in both conditions and the time periods (2001–2003).
Ordination analysis of parameters of these factors graphically determined an orientation and depth after fire changes of ecological space, size displacement their centres. General thermal mode and soil humidity were referred to the factors most sensitive to a fire whereas all other factors appeared less sensitive. It was established, that researched changes are reversive in relation to a direction of vector reservation succession, that gives motivated enough to offer early-spring fires as one of the actions for steppe ecological systems regulations. Also spatial changes of steppe-meadow grouping on small site (the area 1 ha) fire experiment are in general described. With the purpose of knowledge of functional features of steppe ecological systems research of fire is offered to allocate in separate direction — steppe pyrology.
THE FITOCOENOTIC CHARACTERISTIC AND PROTECTION OF THE COMMUNITIES OF SYRINGA JOSIKAEA JAC. (OLEACEAE) WITHIN THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS
The results of the investigation of the modern status of the natural overgrowthes of endemic Carpathian–Balcan species Syringa josikaea jac., which is preserved on the territory of the Ukrainian Carpathians, are given in this article. Besides, the study of florictic composition of phytocoenoses with Syringa josikaea and their seasonal dynamics are in the focus of the author's attention. Special emphasis is laid on the problems of genesis and preservation of the species under study.
RECORDS OF THE RUST FUNGI (ORDER UREDINALES) FROM THE NATIONAL NATURE PARK “SVIATI HORY” (“HOLY HILLS”)
24 species of the order Uredinales were recorded for the National Nature park “Sviati Hory” in autumn 2004. Nine species belong to the genus Puccinia Pers, Uromyces (Link) Unger is represented by four species, Melampsora Castagne and Phragmidium Link — by three each, Pucciniastrum Otth — by two, Coleosporium Lev., Melampsoridium Kleb. and Tranzschelia Arthur — by one species each.
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF MORELS PURE CULTURES (MORCHELLACEAE, ASCOMYCETES) ON AGAR NUTRITIONAL MEDIA
Growth and morphologic characteristics (15 strains) of morels Disciotis venosa, Мorchella conica, M. esculenta, M. semilibera were investigated on 5 agar nutritional media. For the speed of radial mycelial growth complex agar media malt extract and potato dextrose were the best. For sclerotia formation oatmeal yeast agar was the most favorable. The less suitable for mycelial growth of morels cultures was compost agar. The morphology of mycelial colonies varied and was depended on the nutritional media content. Fast growing strains of M. esculenta (1748, 1755, 1805, 1820) and М. conica (1737) were selected for the future investigations.
NEW FOR MYCOBIOTA OF UKRAINE AND RARE SPECIES OF LICHENOSTIGMA HAF. (ARTHONIALES, ASCOMYCOTINA)
Two species of the genus Lichenostigma Haf. (namely, L. gracilis Calatayud, Nav.-Ros. & Haf. та L. rouxii Nav.-Ros. Calatayud & Haf.) are for the first time recorded for Ukraine. Two other taxa (L. cosmopolites Haf. & Calatayud, L. elongata Nav.-Ros. & Haf.) are new for Crimean AR. Full descriptions, data on ecology, distribution in Ukraine, general distribution and taxonomic remarks are provided for each taxon. A key to all species of the genus Lichenostigma known from Ukraine is provided.
TONINIA TALPARUM TIMDAL (LECIDEACEAE, ASCOMYCETES) — NEW SPECIES FOR LICHENBIOTA EURASIA FROM PODOLIYA HEIGHTS
Toninia talparum Timdal is found for the first time for Eurasia during the lichenological investigation in NNP “Podilsky Tovtry”. On the basis of the analysis of the literary data about lichenicolous species of genus Toninia Massal. are marked correlative causations between the form, the sizes spores and a lichen–host. The revealed causations allow to put forward the assumption of existence of two lines evolution among lichenicolous species of a genus Toninia.
TO THE ASSESSMENT OF THE BACKGROUND POLLUTION OF THE GORGANY FOREST ECOSYSTEMS
With the help of the biogeochemical indication methods and using the indicating species of the spore plants (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.), the assessment of impact of the physical-geographical factors (altitude over the sea level, exposition, the angle of slope of the surface) on the amount and the character of the background pollution of the Gorgany ecosystems with heavy metals was carried out. Some peculiarities of the antropogenic pollutants expansion in the mountainous forest ecosystems depending on the physical-geographical factors (exposition in particular) were determined.
PECULIARITIES OF POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CARYOPHYLLACEAE JUSS. AND THEIR TAXONOMIC VALUE
Based upon literature data, a general characteristic of palynomorphological peculiarities of Caryophyllaceae Juss. is provided with a special reference to species occurring in Ukraine. Palynomorphological results do not confirm the subdivision of the family Caryophyllaceae into three subfamilies. It has been shown that within the family the palynomorphological characters provide more information at the generic level and to a lesser extent, at the species level. Palynomorphological characters, as well as many other taxonomic traits, should be used only within a complex approach, together with other relevant characters.
RESULTS AND CURRENT TASKS OF STUDY ON THE UKRAINIAN CHARALES
The review on current status of the knowledge on the Ukrainian charophytes (Charales) is represented. The inventory of their species composition has been shown to come to the end. 38 species of Charales are found in Ukrainian flora, that is evidence of its rather high richness in compare with the floras of some countries in Europe and Asia. Nevertheless, the natural zones of Ukraine are explored unequally. Ukrainian Polissia and Crimean Peninsula including a part of Steppe and the adjusted area of Black Sea are more investigated then Ukrainian Carpathians and Forest-Steppe. Some data on the distribution of Charales in Ukraine are outdated and demand to be conformed. Moreover, purposeful study on ecology of charophytes are practically absent as well as a knowledge of their role in the formation of aquatic biocenoses. Therefore, now one of the main task of the study on Charales is the summarized floristic and systematic investigation the whole territory of Ukraine with aim of establishment of the specific of their species composition and distribution within physical and geographical zones and some regions. The results of the investigation are proposed to be used for writing the monograph "Flora of Algae of Ukraine. Charophytes (Charales)", as well as for developing the algofloristic division into districts of Ukrainian territory and for solution of the current task of algosozology.
MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES AND TRENDS OF EVOLUTION OF POLLEN GRAINS OF PANTOPORATE TYPE WITHIN DICOTYLEDONS: RANUNCULACEAE
The results of study of pollen grain pantoporate type within representatives of the Dicotyledonous (family Ranunculaceae s. l.) plants are submitted. Within the the pantoporate pollen grains are presented in 26 species of 9 genera. On the basis light, scanning and transmission microscopy the detailed morphological characteristics are evaluated. The analysis of results of our research allows is a base of the conclusion about adaptive tendencies in the development pantoporate pollen grains.
INVASIABLE POSSIBILITY OF THE NOTHERNAMERICAN SPECIES CONYZA CANADENSIS (L.) CRONQ. IN NATIONAL NATURE PARK "DESNUANSKO-STARODUTSKY"
Conyza canadensis spread in the National Nature Park "Desniansko-Starogutsky" (East of the Ukrainian Polissia) are considerated. This species is dominated on the fallows and in the crops as weed. This habitats are reserve to expansion C. canadensis in the natural plants communities. The C. canadensis population in models field this winter wheat are investigated. Low density of the crops are contribute to spread C. canadensis in the fields. The most population density and biomass near fallow and field path was observed. C. canadensis does no spread on the pine forest border. Vitality analysis for subpopulation C. canadensis done. On the field adge, there wheat plants are ebsent, the subpopulation C. canadensis are prospery. On the fallow subpopulation prospery too. Hold the wheat grow technology is methods to regulate C. canadensis density in the fields. The forest cultivation is way to limited spread of the C. canadensis.
OF NETISHYN URBAN FLORAS: THE SYSTEMATICS, BIOMORPHOLOGICAL, ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURES
The results of investigation of Netishyn urban flora (Male Polissya) and its the structural analysis (systematics, biomorphological, ecological) are presented. The list of species of the urban flora of Netishyn is included 708 species of vascular plants (381 genus and 98 families). Herbaceous polycarpic, hemicryptophytes, mesophytes, heliophytes prevail in the ecological spectrum.
ABA PARTICIPATION IN REGULATION OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. PRIMARY LEAF GROWTH
Phaseolus vulgaris L. primary leaf growth and phytohormonal complex were studied after seeds incubation in 10-6 M ABA by HPLC and bioassays. As a result of seeds imbibition in ABA solution changes in endogenous phytohormones (IAA, ABA, cytokinins and gibberellin-like substances) synthesis, stable increase in phytohormones quantity during leaf growth and development, formation of the greater stomata amount, increase in leaf thickness and area were observed. The role of ABA in leaf anatomy and phytohormonal complex changes is discussed. Exogenous ABA is supposed to be a promoter of plant tolerance and adaptation to stress conditions.
STRUCTURE-FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF PEA PLANTS (PISUM SATIVUM L.) IN CONDITION OF VARIATION OF SPECTRAL LIGHT COMPOSITION IN RED REGION
The influence of spectral light composition on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and pigment-protein content of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.), grown under "white" luminescent lamps LB-40 at the intensity of 60 and 310 mmolXm-2Xs-1 and under the same irradiation supplemented with red light emitting diodes (LEDs) (lmax = 660 nm, Dl = 20 nm, 40 mmolXm-2Xs-1) has been studied. Maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) pea leaves, grown under white light of different intensities and under the red-enriched light was almost identical, however, plants grown under red LEDs were characterised by higher effective quantum yield of PSII (F'v/F'm) and qP. Non-photochemical quenchings (qN and NPQ) in these plants were lower. The higher degree of State 1 — State 2 transition was observed in experimental plants. Electrophoretic investigations allow to conclude, that red addition resulted in higher light-harvesting complex (LHCII) stability, as indicated by increase in the amount of oligomeric LHCII forms and decrease in the level of free chlorophyll. The data obtained have shown the relationship between higher LHCII stability and non-photochemical quenching level, qN.
FLORA AND VEGETATION OF THE PROPOSED TRANSBOUNDARY BIOSPHERE RESERVE "MARAMURES AND CHYVCHYN-HRYNIAVA MOUNTAINS"
The area is situated in the East Carpathians. Spruce forests prevail in the ukrainian part of the proposed biosphere reserve. Less area is occupied by beech forests. Among spruce forests the association Chrysanthemo rotundifolii—Piceetum have the biggest area. In the romanian part spruce and beech forests prevail, a large area is covered by hornbeam-oak forests (with Quercus petraea). The subalpine belt is well developed, the alpine belt occupies small areas on the highest mountains. The area has many endemic species. In the ukrainian part there were found 64 endemic species of vascular plants (72 % endemics of the Ukrainian Carpathians). 4 species of the ukrainian part are entered in the IUCN Red List, 7 — in the Europeaan Red List, 2 — in Appendix I of the Bern Convention.
S.M. Stoyko, Yu.R. Shelyag-Sosonko
RARE PHYTOCOENOTIC POOL OF UKRAINE AND CONCEPTION OF THE NATIONAL GREEN DATA BOOK
The rare phytocoenotic pool is considered as a phytohistorical, phytogeographical, ecological and coenotic phenomenon, which is connected with phylocoenogenesis process caused by natural and anthropogenous influence. The preserving of rare phytocoenoses (RPh) will assist to conserve the rare phytocoenotic pool and support the phylocoenogenesis in the phytostrome. The priority criterion of RPh determination in natural landscapes are identified. It is proposed to publish the Green Data Book of Ukraine as the legislative document for securing of RPh protection. For this goal it is recommended to create the new category of protected objects "Reserve of rare phytocoenoses".
For the first time an idea of need to create the "Green Data Book of Ukraine" was proposed, theoretically substantiated and realized by Ukrainian geobotanists, that is their world's priority in the field of biodiversity conservation. First the "Green Data Book of Ukrainian RSR" was published in 1987.
THE ROLE OF PHYLOGEOGRAPHICAL METHODS AND APPROACHES IN MODERN RECONSTRUCTIONS OF THE HISTORY OF THE EUROPEAN PLANT COVER.
Phylogeography is a booming modern field of research combining the methods and approaches of molecular phylogenetics, biogeography, population ecology, paleobiology, taxonomy, biogeography and other biological and Earth sciences. An overview of phylogeographical literature is provided; problems and prospects of using phylogeographical methods and data for paleobotanical and paleogeographical reconstructions of the Quaternary in Europe are reviewed and discussed. The phylogeographical approach, in combination with traditional paleobotanical and ecological methods, provides a reliable base for reconstructing the history of formation of the European biota.
PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. PRIMARY LEAF GROWTH UNDER DROUGHT AFTER SEEDS TREATMENT WITH ABA
Influence of seeds incubation in ABA solution (10-6M) on Phaseolus vulgaris L. primary leaf development and phytohormonal complex under drought was studied. Water deficit was induced by cessation of watering during 2 days at the stage of intensive leaf cell division (5-th day of germination). As a result of seeds imbibition in ABA solution increase in leaf thickness, formation of the greater stomata amount, stabilization in endogenous phytohormones (IAA, cytokinins and gibberellin-like substances) content under stress conditions were observed. ABA did not affect the chloroplasts amount. Treatment with ABA did not prevent negative effect of water deficit completely but promoted the growth processes normalization. As a result morphological and anatomical leaf characteristics at the stage of maturity were comparable to control
TYPIFICATION AND CRITICAL TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS DESCRIBED FROM THE UKRAINE SPECIES OF THE FAMILE APIACEAE LINDL.: GENERA GASPARINIA BERTOL. — RUMIA HOFFM.
The list of species of Apiaceae Lindl. (genera: Gasparinia Bertol. — Rumia Hoffm.) described from the territory of Ukraine, incl. Crimea, is presented. Typification were carried out on the base of the analysis of protologs and study ofauthentic herbarium material. Literature citations, basionym, type and place of keeping, ecological and chorological pecularities and new taxonomical information are presented for each species.
TODAY'S STATE OF CENOPOPULATIONS OF RARE PLANTS FROM THE LANDSCAPE PARK "LYSA GORA" KYIV
To begin with 1999 for six years indices of cenopopulation state for three Red Book of Ukraine and nine regionally rare plants from regional landscape park "Lysa Gora" have been studied. Detrimental effect of human activity in natural limit was evident, in particular, spring burning, making bonfires, flower picking to arrange them in bouquets. To conserve cenopopulations of the plants involved the regime of protection in natural limit should be strengthened.
PHENOTYPICAL VARIABILITY PINE-NEEDLE OF SPECIES OF THE GENUS PINUS L. IN UKRAINE
Variability of pine-needle of species of the genus Pinus for 15 morphological and anatomical traits of 19 natural populations has been investigated. Minimum distance between vascular bundles and Martset's index are found out as the most informing morphometrical traits. As population variability analysis showed, stomatals index, thickness and width of pine-needle are the most stable traits, and the middle level of populations variability is equal 14—20%. On morfometrical traits of pine-needle the studied species form wide groups which correspond to the grade of species (P. sylvestris, P. mugo, P. nigra s. l.), subspecies and ecotypes.
PALINOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SECTIONS ADENOLINUM (REICHENB.) JUZ., DASYLINUM (PLANCH.) JUZ., LINOPSIS (REICHENB.) ENGELM. OF THE GENUS LINUM L. IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
Results of palinomorphological studies of sections Adenolinum, Dasylinum, and Linopsis of the genus Linum (taxa occurring in the flora of Ukraine) are reported based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of the genus Linum are characterized by the following diagnostic morphological peculiarities: grains symmetric, ectexina collumellate-etectate, form spheroidal, prolate and oblate-spheroidal, outline from the pole — circular-trilobate, from the equator — broadly elliptic, circular, three-furrowed (tricolpate), 40—90 µm in diameter.
For pollen of the genus Linum a complex sculpture of the exine is characteristic, which consists of sculpture elements (spinules) and structure elements (columellae). We proposed to classify the sculpture elements by their form and sice. Is established that the form and size of pollen grains, form and size of sculptural elements of the exine of long-pistillate forms of Linum species can be used for delimitation of its morphologically similar and closely related representatives.
ANTHROPOGENOUS TRANSFORMATION OF THE HYDROPHILOUS FLORA OF PRYDNIPROVS'KA HIGHLAND: TENDENCIES AND FORECAST OF CHANGES
The synantropic element of hydrophilous flora of Prydniprovs'ka highland has been studied which has 61 species. The main features of anthropogenous influence on the flora of reservoirs and wetlands ecosystems of Prydniprovs'ka highland are distinguished. The directions and tendencies of its changes are established.
IDENTIFICATION OF LEVELS OF VITALITY IN ONTOMORPHOGENESIS HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS
In Chornohora (Carpathian mountains) long-term monitoring behind populations of herbaceous perennials plants is lead. The all-round account of dynamics of their attributes has allowed to specify concept of vitality and principles of differentiation of her levels. On example Soldanella hungarica Simonk. characteristic features of individuals of high, average and low vitality in them ontomorphogenesis are described. By results of accounts of the big group of herbaceous perennials plants the data concerning rates ontomorphogenesis are generalized and their dependence on vitality of individuals is opened.
AGE AND VITALITY STRUCTURE OF THE DIPHASIASTRUM COMPLANATUM S. L. POPULATIONS IN THE DESNIANSKO-STAROGUTSKY NATURAL NATURE PARK
Six populations of the Diphasiastrum complanatum s. l. was investigated. Dependent between moss coverage and density of the orthotropic syntelomes in clones was illustrated. Majority part of the orthotropic syntelomes became to spore reproduction in 4—5 years old. The considerable part of them may to some acts of sporification (two or three). To the complex morphometric analysis of the reproductive orthotropic syntelomes was employed vitality analysis. In the population this low vitalitet are observesed orthotropic syntelomes which has more then one act of sporification. The importance of the morphometric analysis to the monitoring D. complanatum populations was proved. The more significant parameters which indicated growth and reproductive support was proposed to using in the monitoring observations.
THE STRUCTURE OF POPULATIONS, WHICH DOMINANT IN GROUND LAYER OF WOODY PHYTOCOENOSIS AT NATURAL PARK DESNYANSKO-STAROGUTSKY. І. AGE STRUCTURE
The analysis of age structure of populations of eight species of plants, which dominant in ground layer of 27 of woody plant associations is carried out. All populations on the generalized classification of Т.А. Rabotov concerned to a category normal, incomplete, with prevalence of generative plants. The populations with left-hand and center age spectra prevailed. All parameters of age spectra vary depending on plant associations. The aging populations with age index more 1,0 were connected with two types forest stands: the old stands with low density of canopy and with the young stands with high (0,65 and more) density of canopy.
THE GENUS ZYGODON HOOK. ET TAYLOR (ORTHOTRICHACEAE, BRYOPHYTA) IN UKRAINE
The author has checked all Ukrainian specimens of the genus Zygodon Hook. et Taylor keeping in the bryophyte herbarium of the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany (KW). In result it was recognized three species in Ukraine: Z. rupestris Schimp. ex Lorentz, Z. dentatus (Limpr.) Karttunen, and Z. viridissimus s. str. Z. dentatus is reported for the first time for the country. The morphology, the ecology and the distribution of these species are discussed.
NEW FOR UKRAINE LICHEN SPECIES FROM THE MEDOBORY NATURE RESERVE
Four lichen species from the Medobory Nature Reserve, namely Acrocordia subglobosa (Vezda) Poelt, Biatorella germanica Korb., Buellia epigaea (Pers.) Tuck. and Lecidea lichenicola (A.L. Sm. & Ramsb.) D. Hawksw., as new for Ukraine are reported. For each species a full description, list of localities on the Reserve territory and data about distribution beyond Ukraine is provided. Distinction between species and other related taxa is discussed.
ON HIGHER BASIDIOMYCETES OF ZHIGULI. I. RARE SPECIES OF MARASMIEAE (TRICHOLOMATACEAE)
Results of mycological study of lime formations and steppe meadows of Zhiguli mountains (Russia, Samara region) are presented. The descriptions of 4 rare species of the tribe Marasmieae (Tricholomataceae) are given with indication of its substrate and chorological preferences as well as general distribution patterns. The critical notes are given and material examined is cited.
BIODIVERSITY: IMPORTANCE, METHODOLOGY, THEORY AND STRUCTURE
Biodiversity state is identified factor of dynamic balance of biosphere and, consequently, further way of development of the world community, which entered in principally new stage of development, i. e. globalization of the main spheres of its being. The basis of globalization is the destruction of the planet biodiversity. It is analyzed the methodology of any idea. On the base of logic-methodological analyzing it is proposed in principle a new definition of biodiversity, i.e. diversity of individuals (organisms), their systems and econiches of the Earth or any its area and aquatic area is proposed. Peculiarities and biodiversity state define all of essence features of current stage of civilization. A family, population, florocomplex, phytocoenosis, biocoenosis, colony, ecotope are the initial structural units of biodiversity. The first two of them are inherited, the other are functional, not inherited. They play different role in biosphere: self-reproduction, indissoluble unity living and non-living nature, self-regulation, transformation of physical energy into biological one, decrease of enthropy, circulation of energy, matter and information. The florocomplex is ecologically defined one-typical number of populations' species repeated in the space in analogous conditions. It has quite clear natural borders and as any other structural unit of biodiversity is not geographical, but ecological phenomenon, the territorial dimension of which is defined by the degree of specific composition community. This is a material hierarchic system, one-typical by specific composition floristic complexes of which form the elementary flora.
RELICTS, REFUGIA, AND MIGRATION ROUTES OF PLANTS IN EUROPE IN THE PLEISTOCENE-HOLOCENE: A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC EVIDENCE
The authors provide an overview of recent literature on phylogeography of vascular plants of Europe and discuss the role of phylogeographic studies for paleobotanical and paleogeographical concepts, especially for the "evergreen" issue of glacial relicts and Pleistocene refugia in Europe, which in Ukrainian historical phytogeography was often misinterpreted because of the once popular antiglacialistic paradigm. The phylogeographic approach is a powerful and reliable tool for reconstructing the late Quaternary history of the European biota, especially when combined with traditional paleobotanical (paleopalynological) and ecological approaches. For overcoming the existing low attention to phylogeography in our country, collaborative studies of phylogeography of several crucially important groups of vascular plants occurring in Ukraine should be initiated.
MYCELIAL MICROSTRUCTURES IN PURE CULTURES OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF MORCHELLACEAE (ASCOMYCOTA)
Investigations of the mycelial microstructures in pure cultures of 9 species of Morchellaceae (Ascomycota) from the genera Morchella (7 sp.), Disciotis (1 sp.) and Verpa (1 sp.) were made using scanning electron microscopy. New data were obtained on the presence and fine structure of conidial sporulation, lacunose and incrustated hyphae, anastomoses, mycelial cords etc. in investigated species. In Morchella conica Pers. M. еsculenta (L.) Pers., M. angusticeps Peck., the conidial sporulation Costantinella terrestris (Link.: Gray) Hughes. was studied. In M. сonica, M. angusticeps and М. с rassipes (Vent.) Pers. conidial sporulation of oidium type and budding cells were discovered. We registrated blastoconidia in Verpa conica (Mull.) Swartz and mycelial cords in Disciotis venosa Boud.
ON HIGHER BASIDIOMYCETES OF ZHIGULI. II. RARE SPECIES OF MYCENEAE (TRICHOLOMATACEAE)
Results of mycological study of lime formations and steppe meadows of Zhiguli mountains (Russia, Samara region) are presented. The descriptions of 4 rare species of Myceneae (Tricholomataceae) are given with indication of its substrate and chorological preferences as well as general distribution patterns. The critical notes are given and material examined is cited.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE TREE TYPE AND HABITAT HUMIDITY ON THE MYCOBIOTA AND PHYTOEDAFON OF THE FOREST PLANTATIONS
The species diversity of soil mycobiota and edaphic alga was studied in pine and leaf plantations cultivated at pine terrace of Seversky Donetz river (Kharkiv region, Ukraine). The changes in micromycetes species quantity occurring under the influence of forest forming tree strain or habitat humidity showed a negative correlation with respective changes in algae species number. Thus, quantitative characteristics obtained for one particular group of microorganisms (fungi or algae) could be potentially applied for prediction of another group diversity, and vice versa.
DISTRIBUTION OF CYTOKININS IN THE THALLI OF THE CHARA CONTRARIA A.BR. (CHLOROPYCEAE)
The research was carried out in the quality and quantity composition of cytokinins in sterile and fertile thallies of the green freshwater alga Chara contraria A. Br., in oospores, rysoids, in leaves of bottom, middle and apical part of the main stem of the fertile thalli. It was found that upper part of the main stem of chara with an apical cell and new leaves with have joint gametangia on them which are characterized with high cytokinins content and bottom maturity leaves — low.
PALYNOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF SECTIONS SYLLINUM GRISEB., LINUM, CATHARTOLINUM (REICHENB) GRISEB. OF THE GENUS LINUM L. IN THE UKRAINIAN FLORA
Using light and scanning electron microscopes, we carried out palynomorphological research of the representatives of the Syllinum, Linum, and Cathartolinum sections of the genus Linum in the flora of Ukraine. A new modified classification of the sculpture elements of pollen grains based on their shape and size is proposed. Pollen dimorphism was noted in all heterostylous species of the genus. Diagnostic palynomorphological criteria for sections are the shape and size of pollen grains, the shape, size and location of the sculpture elements; for the genus those are the size of pollen grains, features of the exine: the size and shape of spinules. The results of our palynomorphological study in general conform to the taxonomic subdivision of the genus into sections based on morphological features.
DELPHINIUM SERGII WISSJUL. (RANUNCULACEAE) IS A NEW SPECIE FOR UKRAINIAN PRAVOBEREZHYE
The new locality for Delphinium sergii Wissjul. has described, and, being disjunctively distributed in the Donetzk District (Ukraine), Predkavkazye and Don's estuary territories. The Delphinium sergii Wissjul. firstly has been found in Dneper Pravoberejye flora.
THE TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE FLORA OF THE DESNA PLATO (SUMY REGION, UKRAINE)
The systematic analysis of the flora of the Desna Plato (Sumy Region, Ukraine) is presented. The basis of this flora include med holarctic elements. A considerable part of this flora is presented by boreal and Mediterranean components. On the whole, the composition of the flora is typical for the northeastern part of Ukraine, and Central European flors.