L.G. Bezusko, A.G. Bezusko, Z.M. Tsymbalyuk, S.L. Mosyakin
PROSPECTS OF USING POLLEN GRAINS OF THE GENUS PLANTAGO L. (PLANTAGINACEAE JUSS.) FOR DETERMINING ANTHROPOGENIC CHANGES OF THE VEGETATION COVER OF UKRAINE IN THE HOLOCENE
Generalized results are provided based on our analysis of the content of pollen of Plantaginaceae in palynological characteristics of subfossil soil samples (forest, forest — steppe, and steppe zones) and Holocene deposits of standard natural sections and cultural layers of archaeological sites of Ukraine. Using case studies, we discuss the prospects of using species — level identifications of Plantago fossil pollen in determining the nature and impact of the anthropogenic factor upon the vegetation changes in the Holocene. For improving the quality of interpretation of paleopalynological data, new palynomorphological studies of representatives of Plantago in the flora of Ukraine are needed. We report new results of palynomorphological studies of 14 species of Plantago occurring in Ukraine (light and scanning electron microscopy). We propose to use in identification of fossil pollen of Plantago the following basic diagnostic qualitative characters: sculpture of the mesoporium surface, presence/absence of the annulus and operculum. Important additional quantitative characters are also the pore number and pollen grain diameter.
SPECIES OF VASCULAR PLANTS DESCRIBED FROM THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE, THEIR TYPIFICATION AND CRITICAL TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS: THE FAMILE APIACEAE LINDL. (SANICULA L. — TRINIA HOFFM.) The list of species of Apiaceae Lindl. (Umbelliferae Juss., genera Sanicula L. — Trinia Hoffm.) described from the territory of Ukraine, incl. Crimea, is presented. Typification were carried out on the base of the analysis of protologs and study of authentic herbarium material. Literature citations, basionym, type and place of keeping, ecological and chorological pecularities and new taxonomical information are presented for each species.
UROCYSTIS TRIENTALIS (BERK. ET BROOME) B. LINDEB. (USTILAGINOMYCETES), A NEW SPECIES OF SMUT FUNGI FOR UKRAINE
Urocystis trientalis (Berk. et Broome) B. Lindeb. parasitising Trientalis europaea L. is reported as a new species of smut fungi for the territory of Ukraine. Information on U. trientalis morphology and the localities in the Ukrainian Polissya are provided.
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENUS PHRAGMIDIUM LINK
The genus Phragmidium (Uredinales) comprises autoecious parasites of the subfamily Rosoideae. More than 150 species names are known but only about 90 species are distinctive. The geographical distribution of the genus clearly reveals its Holarctic and Pacific affinity. By their distribution, species of Phragmidium can be divided into 6 groups: 1) East Asian; 2) Central and South Asian; 3) Eurasian; 4) North American; 5) Holarctic; 6) Species distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. In geographical terms a hypothesis could be proposed that the genus originated in the area north-east of the Tethys ocean gap and spread westward and northwards after that gap was closed by collision of India and Arabia with the Asian plate. The westward spread gave rise to species of rather narrow distribution in Western China, the Himalaya, Pakistan, Central Asia and Iran. The northwards spread to Northern Eurasia and North America mainly resulted in widespread Holarctic and Eurasian species. The origin of New Zealand and Australian phragmidiums is still unclear.
A NEW PACHYKYTOSPORA SPECIES (BASIDIOMYCOTA, POLYPORALES) FROM ZHIGULI, EUROPEAN RUSSIA
The genus Pachykytospora Kotl. et Pouzar unites some prostrate pore fungi having Polyporus — like skeleto-binding hyphae and uneven ellipsoid basidiospores, which are characterized by rather longitudinal arrangements of the crests. The last feature as well as the basidiocarp resupinate trait distinctly mark the differences between the genus Pachykytospora from the closely related Haploporus, albeit some authors do not make these distinctions between the genera. According to many reasonable yet narrow concepts, the genus Pachykytospora includes nine species having south-temperate to tropical distribution. All of them are clearly distinguishable according to spore sizes, dextrinoid reaction of skeletals, anatomy of dissepiment edge, and some features of pore surface.
NEW AND RARE LICHENICOLOUS FUNGI FROM UKRAINE
Four new for Ukraine species of lichenicolous fungi (Endococcus rugulosus Nyl., Lichenothelia scopularia (Nyl.) D. Hawksw., Polycoccum microsticticum (Leight. ex Mudd) Arnold, Stigmidium pumilum (Lettau) Matzer et Hafellner) are recorded. Cercidospora macrospora (Uloth) Hafellner et Nav.- Ros., Lichenoconium lecanorae (Jaap) D. Hawksw., Lichenostigma cosmopolites Hafellner & Calatayud, Lichenothelia convexa Henssen are recorded for the first time for Ukraine Plains and Endococcus propinquus (Kцrber) D. Hawksw., Muellerella lichenicola (Sommerf.) D. Hawksw. and M. pygmaea (Kцrber) D. Hawksw. — for the Steppe Zone. References to description, synonyms, localities in Ukraine and general distribution are provided for each taxon.
SEARCH FOR ANTAGONISTS TO ARMILLARIELLA MELLEA (FR. EX VAHL.) KARST IN SPRUCE AND BEECH WOODS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS
The character of mutual relation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Armillariella mellea was investigated in laboratory and field conditions. The antagonistic activity of the research strain P. ostreatus to the A. mellea is established, the inter-strain polymorphism discovered. The method of the application crops mycelium P. ostreatus for the acceleration of the process biodestruction the stumps is worked.
ESTIMATION OF POWER POTENTIAL OF ECOTYPES DEPENDING ON A DEGREE THEIR HEMEROBY (FOR EXAMPLE OF THE SLOVECHANSKO-OVRUCHSKY RIDGE)
Dependence of territorial differentiation of ecosystems of the Slovechansko-Ovruchsky ridge is set on a degree their hemeroby. Connection is investigational between hemerob ecosystems and basic edaphically factors.
RESOURCES MONITORING OF THYMUS L. IN UKRAINE
Resources monitoring of species Thymus L. (Th. serpyllum, Th. marchallianus, Th. dimorphus) on the six experimental squares in the third regions of Ukraine is conducted. Conformities and peculiarities of resources dynamic of model species at different level of antropogenous load were analysed. Influence of direct and indirect factors on the state of Thymus resources was studied.
SYNPHYTOINDICATATIVE CHARACTERISTIZATION OF SHRUB VEGETATION CLASS RHAMNO-PRUNETEA RIVAS GODAY ET CARB. 1961 OF UKRAINE
This paper deals with an ecological evaluation of shrub communities habitats by the method of synphytoindication. Analysed communities belong to Pruno-Rubion fruticosi, Berberidion vulgaris, Prunion spinosae, Prunion fruticosae and Lamio purpureae — Acerion tatarici alliances. Such ecological factors as soil humidity, acidity, mineral nitrogen and carbonates contents in soil, general mineral condition, termoregime, continentality and frosen regime are estimated.
COMPARISON OF GROWTH RATES OF THE FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS ASPERGILLUS NIGER FROM CONTRASTING ENVIRONMENTS
Eighteen strains of filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger were isolated from contrasting environments in Israel: the hypersaline Dead Sea and the temperate "Evolution Canyon" I. A comparison of growth rates under different salt stress was provided. Clear differences in growth were observed under 5-20% and 40% volumes of the Dead Sea water. No difference was observed when we used 25-35% volumes of DSW. Strains from "Evolution Canyon" I grown at lower concentrations of the DSW revealed higher growth rates, while strains from the Dead Sea water demonstrated higher activity under higher salt stress (40% volumes of DSW). Therefore, the following conclusion can be made: strains of A. niger isolated from the Dead Sea water are more adapted to stress associated with low-water activity.
THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF ACER SACCHARINUM L. AND A. TATARICUM L. SEED EMBRYO CELLS DIFFERING BY THE QUIESCENCE DEPTH
The ultrastructure of cells in the forming and mature seeds from the recalcitrant (A. saccharinum L.) and orthodox (A. tataricum L.) types was investigated. It was shown that the embryo cells of the seeds of both types had the similar ultrastructure in the early period of embryo genesis. The mature seeds of A. saccharinum were characterized with the high level of wateriness (50-55%), sensitive to the insiccation, and capable to germinate quickly without additional watering. The embryo cells of such seeds had both organelles, whose structure testified about their functional activity, and the storage substances (starch, proteins, and lipids). During maturation, A. tataricum seeds turned into the state of deep physiological quiescence and were capable to germinate after the long cold stratification. The embryo cells were loaded totally with storage lipids and proteins. Hyaloplasm and organelles underwent substantial changes appearing in the drastic rearrangement of the cell membrane structure resulting in the difficulties of their identification. It was proposed that there was the correlative dependence between the seed quiescence depth and the state of the membrane system of the embryo cells.
SEMINAL PRODUCTIVITY OF ARBOREAL PLANTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF CONTAMINATION OF ENVIRONMENT BY A CHLORINE AND HIS CONNECTIONS
Influence of environmental contamination (priority compound Cl2, HCl in less degree SO2) on descriptions of intensity of fruiting and quality of five species seed of arboreal breeds of basic forest-forming in the conditions of south-east of Ukraine were investigated. The decline of the studied indexes on the gradient of the technogenic loading is set. Recommendations in relation to their use at the practical monitoring are given.
INFLUENCE OF SOIL POLLUTION ON MACRONUTRIENT AND MICRONUTRIENT CONTENT IN CAREX HIRTA L. PLANTS
We investigated influence of oil soil pollution on the macronutrient and micronutrient content in the plants. Objects of our investigation were Carex hirta L. plants — long-rooted grasses. Model experiments carry on in the field condition. Oil were brought into experimental soil 48 and 96 g/soil kg. After three weeks on these soils Carex hirta plants were transferred. Contrlol — plants, that growth on soil without oil. After two month macronutrient and micronutrient content of plants was studied. It was shown that oil pollution had strong effect on nutrient content of plants. We investigated, that under 48 g/kg oil pollution of soil content of K, Mn, Na, Fe in the roots and shoots increased. Under 96 g/kg oil pollution of soil in the plants decreased K, P, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu content. In the conclusions of our experiments we conducted that species of Carex hirta have ecological, morphological and physiology-biochemical traits and they help it to increase stability to oil pollution. Thus, these species can be recommended for recultivation of soils polluted by oil and oil-products.
INTRASPECIES AND INTERSPECIES REACTION OF ALGALOGICALLY PURE CULTURE OF BLUE-GREEN ALGAE ON CHANGE OF THE GROWTH CONDITION
Results of researches concerning the influence of carbon nutrition and lighting on the productivity of blue-green algae and protein accumulation have been presented in this article. It was determined some differences in reaction of these organisms on changes of growth conditions, moreover, significant differences were observed on the level of species. Thus, according to our data, more intensive growth and protein accumulation in N. punctiforme 39, than in N. muscorum 81 takes place under glucose action. Change of cultivation conditions of algae is manifested to a lesser degree on the level of strain of N. punctiforme 38 and N. punctiforme 39. The intensity of glucose assimilation in darkness takes place almost in the same degree both at the level of species and strain. The addition of diuron to the nutrition medium completely depresses of growth processes, the presence of glucose in medium significantly decreases the diuron action. The reaction of algae also investigated is different on the intensity and lighting duration.
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME "IMPORTANT PLAMT AREAS" (IPA) AND PERSPECTIVES OF ITS DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE
The article gives a brief history of IPA network. A special attention is granted to the IPA selection criteria. Results of IPA projects in some countries are considered. Perspectives of the IPA network in Ukraine are discussed.
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ENERGY RECOURCES OF UKRAINE
Energy indicators for reservoirs and gain of phytomass, litter and soils of Ukraine in general and different types of its ecosystems have been calculated for the first time. Real and potential indicators are being compared. Correlations between intensity of phytomass accumulation and energy of its degradation have been elucidated. Influence of anthropogenic factor has lead to 2.8 times decrease of energy resources of phytomass (33•1018 J), 2 time decrease of energy resources of litter (6•1018 J), and 20-30% decrease of potentially possible resources of soils (140-155•1018 J). Ratio of energy resourses of biomass to soil was estimated as 1:4.7. Such a ratio indicates high fertility energy intensity of soils of Ukraine as well as degradation and disturbed state of biotic block. Energy indicators are an effective way of evaluation of intensity of anthropogenic influence pointing out human attitude to nature. Evaluation of energy resourses should serve as base for elaboration of mechanisms providing stable sustainable development of community
THE CARPATHIAN BIOSPHERE RESERVE, RAKHIV TRANSCARPATHIAN REGION VEGETATION OF THE RESERVE AREA "VALLEY OF NARCISSI": CURRENT STATE AND DYNAMIC TENDENCY
The present paper calls attention to description of vegetation of the reserve area "Valley of narcissi" (the Transcarpathian Region). Many of investigations have confirmed the territorial predominance and the most phytocoenotic diversity of meadow type presented by genuine, swamp and peaty meadows. Other types of vegetation (shrub, mire, air-aquatic and aquatic) are less diverse and occupy smaller areas. Comparison of the results obtained and fond materials point out the considerable changes of vegetation, namely: coenotic structure, decrease of genuine meadow areas and increase of peaty meadows. The last are distinguished by phytocoenoses Molinieta caeruleae prevailing as a result of changes of edaphotopes, which take place under influence of repeated floods. The authors suggest to consider effective nature conservation activities in the reserve area within the system of measures for conservation of natural complexes of all territory of the Khustets river valley. To provide the monitoring it is expedient to create the large-scale ecological maps.
IINTERCONDITIONALITY OF FORMING VEGETATIVE AND GENERATIVE SPHERE OF PLANTS: A METHOD OF CANONICAL CORRELATIONS
In development of these structures and integrated character of an expenditure by plants material and power resources. The In 12 species of annual and perennial herb plants at forest-steppe conditions of Ukraine the individuality of morphological structure shown in specificity of meanings of the basic quantitative morphological parameters is revealed: the size overground phytomass, leaf surface, and weight and number generative organs. By a method of the canonical analysis established, that the factors of initial correlation between vegetative and generative structures of the investigated species of plants always positive and lay in amplitude from 0,792 up to 0,999, that specifies proportionality greatest contribution to importance of canonical correlation brought in vegetative sphere of plants — the overground phytomass size and leaf surface, and in generative sphere — the phytomass of generative structures and size of reproductive allocation. The method of the initial analysis with calculation of canonical correlations and canonical weights has appeared the effective and informed tool for the analysis of forming and status vegetative and generative structures of plants. The reproductive effort at individuals of the different size is generically protected and varies less, than the sizes of plants, that conducts to negative meanings of pair correlation coefficients between morphoparametrs of vegetative sphere of plants and reproductive effort. The hypothesis of perception photoperiod of plants, sensitive to it, is proved depending on achievement by them of the necessary threshold size, which explains the numerous and inconsistent facts of the control of reproduction by the sizes individuals.
TYPF OF SPECIES OF FAMILY POACEAE DESCRIBED FROM UKRAINE: GENUS AGROPYRON P. GAERTN., AGROSTIS L., AGROTRYGIA TZVELEV, APERA ADANS., AVENA L., BRIZA L., BROMOPSIS (DUMORT.) FOURR., BROMUS L., CALAMAGROSTIS ADANS.
The list of species of vascular plants of the family Poaceae (genus Agropyron P. Gaertn., Agrostis L., Agrotrygia Tzvelev, Apera Adans., Avena L., Briza L., Bromopsis (Dumort.) Fourr., Bromus L., Calamagrostis Adans.) described from Ukraine and typification of some species are provided. The following data of each species are provided: basionym, original nomenclatural citation; according protologue holotype or/and isotype, lectotype, isolectotype; herbarium (-a) at which the speciemen (s) is (are) deposited.
TAXONOMIC OVERVIEW OF THE GENUS LINUM L. IN THE UKRAINIAN FLORA
A critical and taxonomic revision of the genus Linum L. In the Ukrainian flora is presented. The modified system of the genus (taxa of Ukraine) includes 8 sections, 2 subsections and 5 series (subsect. Nervosa Optasyuk, ser. Suffruticulae Optasyuk, ser. Extraaxillaria Optasyuk, ser. Squamulosa Optasyuk is described as new for science), 23 species, and 1 form.
UTRICULARIA AUSTRALIS R. BR. (LENTIBULARIACEAE) — NEW SPECIES FOR THE SUBCARPATHIANS FLORA
During the scientific expedition in 2006 in NNP "Gutsulshchyna" a new species for the Subcarpathians flora — Utricularia australis R. Br. in the lake "Banske" in the Kosiv town of Ivano-Frankivsk region has been discovered. This species was described from Transcarpathians first for the Ukrainian flora, though the detailed information about this species in botanical issues, mentioned in this article, is absent. There are data on the morphology, taxonomy, pollen morphology and cenology of U. australis in the article.
THE MOSSY REGIONAL DICANSKOGO LANDSCAPE PARK AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN FORMATION OF BRYOPHYTIC COMMUNITIES
The present article gives the analysis of brioflora Dicanka regional landscape park (the left-bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine), that numbering 87 kinds of the mossy from two classes, 26 families, 55 species. The role of bryophyta in formation bryophytic communities is shown. Aspectual composition bryophytic the most rich in Forest Parasotski i (66 kinds). Forest Parasotskii this refresher of the nature of national significance. The emphasis is laid on Neckera complanata (Hedw.) Hьb., rare for this region. It was described to here in 1897 year. B rioflora Dicanka regional landscape park is typical for left-bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine. She reflects it zonаl-local peculiarities.
NEW FOR UKRAINE SPECIES OF EPIPHYTIC LICHENS FROM URBAN ECOSYSTEMS OF YALTA AMPHYTHEATRE
The descriptions, ecology, locations and geography for ten new for Ukraine epiphytic species of lichens (Bacidia auerswaldii (Hepp ex Stizenb.) Mig., Bacidina delicata (Larbal. ex Leight.) V. Wirth & Vмzda, Pachyphiale arbuti (Bagl.) Arnold, Phaeophyscia pusilloides (Zahlbr.) Essl., Rinodina pityrea Ropin & H. Mayrh., Scoliciosporum gallurae Poelt & Vмzda, Strigula affinis (Massal.) R.G. Harris, Verrucaria sorbinea Breuss, Xanthoria steineri J.M. Lamb.) are provided. These lichens are collected after lichen indicate mapping the of urban ecosystems of Yalta amphitheatre.
PUCCINIASTRUM ARCTICUM (LAGERH.) TRANZSCHEL — A NEW FOR UKRAINE SPECIES OF THE RUST FUNGI
A new for Ukraine rust fungus Pucciniastrum arcticum (Lagerh.) Tranzschel was recorded on Rubus saxatilis L. near Ochkyne village, Sumy oblast (N 52о16ґ, E 33о24ґ) in July 2005.
PROBABLE ROLE OF A SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE OF WHEAT COLEOPTILES IN THE ACCUMULATION OF PEROXIDE COMPOUNDS INDUCED BY EXOGENOUS SALICYLIC ACID
The treatment of wheat coleoptiles segments with 10 µM solution of salicylic acid (SA) raised their heat resistance, caused essential increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and insignificant decrease of catalase activity. The conclusion has been made, that accumulation of peroxides induced by SA in tissues substantially is caused by SOD activity rising. It is supposed, that the oxidative stress induced by SA causes an activation of protective systems of the plant cells, necessary for the adequate response to the subsequent damaging heating.
ADAPTIVE REACTIONS OF DESCHAMPSIA АNTARCTICA DESV. WHICH GREW IN ANTARCTIC CONDITIONS UNDER OXIDATION STRESS ACTION Physiological and biochemical characteristics of samples of Deschampsia аntarctica plants selected from different Antarctic coastal islands during work 9 Ukrainian Antarctic expeditions of 2004 are investigated. It is shown, that activity of the basic metabolic processes at these plants depends on conditions of growth. Action of low temperatures and snow cover leads to accumulation sulphuquinovosyldiacylglycerol and the basic photosynthesizing pigments in Deschampsia аntarctica plant photosynthetic tissues, that provides optimal conditions for phototrophic nutrition, and in general, survival of plants in extreme conditions. With the purpose of studying of adaptive reactions of Deschampsia аntarctica plants they were introduced in climatic conditions of the European temperate region and their reaction to oxidative stress action comparing with Deschampsia karpatica plants was investigated. The received results specify high enough adaptive opportunities of Deschampsia аntarctica plants which adapted successfully to climatic conditions of European temperate region and appeared plastic enough to oxidative stress action.
STRUCTURAL AND METABOLIC FEATURES OF SHOOT'S INTERCALARY GROWTH
The results of anatomic researches beginning intercalary meristem and cell differentiation in shoots with intercalary growth are summarized. There are exist data about physiologic characteristics of cells and tissues growing internodes under discussion. The role of plant hormonal system in regulation of intercalary growth is important.
O.M. Peregrym, O.A. Futorna
STRUCTURE OF THE BRACT SURFACE IN SPECIES OF THE EUPHRASIA L. IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
For the first time the surface ultrastructure of bract epidermis of 19 species of the genus Euphrasia in the flora of Ukraine have been studied using SEM. The common characteristics for all studied species of the bract ultrastructure (amphistomous type of leaf, regularly spaced, unimmersed anomocitic stomata, well-developed cuticle, and mixed pubescence, formed by hairs and glands, type and location of wax deposits, general type of surface structure) have been revealed. The complexes of some diagnostic characteristics have systematical value on the sectional (type of surface structure, presence of wax crystals, type of trichomes), subsectional (type of surface structure, form and character of simple hairs distribution, presence of wax crystals), species-aggregation and species levels (type of surface structure, hairs distribution, structure of glandular hairs, form of simple hairs, presence of wax).
SPECIES OF IRIDACEAE JUSS. IN FLOOD-LANDS OF THE DESNA RIVER
The new sites are revealed, the distribution and cenotic attachment of 5 species of family Iridaceae in flood-lands of the Desna river within the limits of East Polissa are analysed. The rare species (Iris sibirica L., Gladiolus imbricatus L., G. tenuis M. Bieb.) on a population level are investigated. Two new places of naturalization of Sisyrinchium septentrionale Bicknell. in territory of Ukraine are revealed.
NEW RECORDS OF THE MUTINUS FR. SPECIES (PHALLACEAE) IN UKRAINE
Information about new records of Mutinus caninus (Huds.) Fr. and M. ravenelii (Berk. et M.A. Curtis) E. Fish. (Phallaceae, Basidiomycota) in Ukraine, rare species in Europe, is presented. It is proposed to include M. ravenelii into a new issue of the Red Data Book of Ukraine.
POPULATIONS STRUCTURE OF DAPHNE LAUREOLA L. ON THE BORDER OF IT AREAL
The structures of 23 D. laureola populations are given: age, spatial, vitality in the ratio with the ecological factors which situated on plants habitat. Were investigated: numberity, density, ontogenetic spectrum and consorts connection of populations. Was carried out analysis on a different and similarity of Daphne plants from Crimea and Morocco. For this proper authors used structure of leaves plate and branches (17 parameters). Age populations spectra from Crimea are not complete and generally with right-hand type. On other side average density of specia 0,95 plants/m2. The vital structure of populations in borders of a Cl Erico-Pinetea is higher than Cl Quercete a-Pubescenti petraea. Quantitative analysis of leaves flat parameters has not confirmed difference between D. laureola subsp. laureola from Crimea and D. laureola var. latifolia from Atlas mountains.
PROGNOSTICATION OF THE STATE OF POPULATION OF PLANTS OF HERB-UNDERSHRUB LAYER IN FOREST AREA ON THE BASIS OF CORRELATION-REGRESSIVE MODEL
At development prognosis models it was set that in most measure age of forest trees and degree of his serried influence on the state of the population explored plants of herb-undershrub layer tier. Dependence of vitality structure of population of herb-undershrub layer tier on age of forest trees answers regressive equalization: Q = –0,146 + 0,007 AGE, and she has a tendency to be increased as far as the increase of age of forest trees (subject to the condition, if age of forest trees anymore for 25 years). Dependence of vitality structure of population from serried of forest trees respond to condition: Q = 0,181 + 0,07 CLOSE, and also has a tendency to the increase. The method of diagnostics of the state of population is approved, suitable for monitoring of their dynamics in the conditions of protected. The prognosis of state is done and development of herb-undershrub layer tier in the forests of region on the nearest 30 years. It is shown that with development of suktsesyons process, there will be the increase of vitality population of herb-undershrub layer tier on a gradient on territory of the Desnyansko-Starogutsky national natural park: depressive —> equilibrium —> prosperous at the decline of general age population.
AGE AND VITALITY STRUCTURES OF THE LEGUMES POPULATIONS ON THE FLOOD MEADOWS OF THE PSYOL-RIVER (FOREST-STEPPE ZONE) IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FARMING USING
The high pascual loadings leads to substantial changes of populations age and vitality structures. So, in age spectrums of the studying meadows legumes herbs on the pascual gradient the stakes of oldest generative and post-generative individuals are increase and the stakes of beforgenerative states individuals are decrease, that's why the potential possibilities of population to control territory in phytocenosis for a long time are reduce. The haying loadings renders more soft influence on an age structure, because the stake of beforegenerative state individuals is remained concerning so high. The analysis of vitality structure is demonstrated that mainly high pascual (stages of PD3 and PD4), and the haying (FD3) loadings are excessive for the most populations of the studying legumes species. It causes the transition of individuals of populations from the classes of "а" and "b" in the class of "с". Quality of populations falls substantially, that is the threat to existence of specie in phytocenosis. T. repens and M. lupulina are more sustainable to the pasture and haymaking. But on the whole due to the expressed displacement of vitality structure of populations from prosperous to depressed all legumes meadow herbs are unsteady to the unoptimum modes of exploitation of flood meadows in the forest-steppe zone, the participation of its strongly goes down in grass-stand, the results of its are the low quality of the forages and the unnormal common functioning of the meadow ecosystem.
ADDITION TO CLASSIFICATION OF TALL-HERBS VEGETATION OF UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS
The tall-herb — schrub communities with dominance of Spiraea chamaedryfolia and Calamagrostis arundinaceae which are formed on disturbed sandstone cobble substrates in spruce forest belt of Gorgany Natural Reserve were described. These communities belong to Calamagrostio-Spireetum chamaedryfoliae Resmeriюг et Csьrцs 1966 assotiation (Mulgedio-Aconitetea Hada и et Klika in Klika 1948), which was mentioned for the first time for the Ukrainian Carpathians. Spiraea chamaedryfolia, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Galium intermedium, Rosa pendulina, Sedum carpaticum, Rubus idaeus, Athyrium filix-femina, Hypericum maculatum Dryopteris filix-mas are presented with a high constansy. Speceas of Mulgedio-Aconitetea class play significant role in such communities. Floristic composition, coenotic structure and ecological peculiarities of these communities have been defined. Descbribed communitues are developed in mesophitic — hygromesophitic subacidophilous — acidophilous mesotrophic — semieutrophic hemonitrophilous hemicarbonatophobous conditions.
THE UNIQUE LOCALITY OF THE LIPARIS LOESELII (L.) RICH. IN КYIV CITY
The Liparis loeselii locality was found in Kyiv after 85 year interval. The orchid grows on wet meadow that was ploughed up six year ago. In spite of the significant antropogenous pressure the population is characterized by high number of individuals (more one hundred), complete age spectra, predominance of generative individuals and seed reproduction. Now danger of building in this territory exist what is why locus and nearest territory with Epipactis palustris, Dactylorhiza incarnata and Ophioglossum vulgatum populations must be proclaimed as reservation.
THE ADAPTATIONS OF PERSICARIA AMPHIBIA (L). DELARBRE TO CHANGES OF WATER ENVIRONMENT
The features of adaptation Persicaria amphibia to changes of water environment are investigated. Is shown, that the anatomo-morphological adaptations consist in changes of thickness of leaves, quantity of cells of mesophyl and epidermis, their sizes, reduction of quantity of stomata, formation of amphystomata leaves, changes of quantity of stomata and formation of pilary leaves. Researches of the contents of АBA in leaves has shown, that in the beginning of vegetation prevailed conjugated АBA in terrestrial forms, in comparison with water form. During flowering at top leaves of terrestrial forms the presence both free, and conjugated АBA, whereas at water — only conjugated is marked. The intensity of allocation ethylene of leaves of the water form was much more (at 18 — 20 of time), than terrestrial form.
CYTOKININS IN PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. ORGANS DURING REPRODUCTIVE PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT Cytokinins distribution in Ph. vulgaris leaves, stem, roots and flowers during plants reproductive development was studied. Decrease in zeatin and zeatin riboside content in leaves after flowering beginning was shown. These hormones levels increased after pollination. It can be assumed that increase in active cytokinins concentrations was a result of their transport from roots and was connected with seeds and fruits setting.
GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYS OF FLORA: HISTORY, PRESENT TIME AND FUTURE
The history of development of geography of plants, approaches to classification of areals and the concept of "the geographical element of a flora" are considered in brief. It is concluded that an attempt to delimit criteria for division of areals violates four rules of formal logic and thus creation of a universal classification of such criteria is impossible. Application of systemological polythetic classification that incorporates quantitative measurements of elements according to corresponding scales for various characters instead of delimiting elements is suggested. Climate scales (thermo-, ombro-, crioregime and continentality) reflecting pecificity of a species range were used to evaluate geographical structure of flora. Quantitative evaluation of species' areals of three model taxa (Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae, Ranunculaceae), a number of smaller families and flora of the Ukraine as a whole (2028 species) revealed the proximity of their average indices. When mapped, such a distribution results in a clear pattern of concentration of isochors' intersections, named "the target effect". The latter effect can be explained by the laws of organization of geographical structure; in particular by following the principles of symmetry of areals distribution in respect to the flora of a given region. Such a structure is considered from the standpoint of principles of organization of areals of a large scale econiche at a regional level. The discovered target effect is of importance for prognostic applications.
HISTORY OF PLANT GEOGRAPHY IN UKRAINE: A BRIEF OVERVIEW
The article provides an overview of key figures, major achievements and problems in development of geography of plants in Ukraine.
SPECIES OF VASCULAR PLANTS DESCRIBED FROM THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE, THEIR TYPIFICATION AND CRITICAL TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS: THE FAMILE ROSACEAE JUSS. (GENERA AMYGDALUS L., CERASUS МILL., COTONEASTER MEDIK., PRUNUS L., PYRUS L., SORBUS L., SPIRAEA L.)
The list of species of Rosaceae Juss. (genera: Amygdalus L., Cerasus Мill., Cotoneaster Medik., Prunus L., Pyrus L., Sorbus L., Spiraea L.) described from the territory of Ukraine, incl. Crimea, is presented. Typification were carried out on the base of the analysis of protologs and study of authentic herbarium material. Literature citations, basionym, type and place of keeping, ecological and chorological pecularities and new taxonomical information are presented for each species.
POPULATIAN GOODYERA REPENS (L.)R. BR. (ORCHIDACEAE) IN THE DESNIANSKO-STAROGUTSKY NATURAL NATURE PARK
The map of population of Goodyera repens in the Desniansko-Starogutsky Natural Nature Park (northeast of Ukraine) is made. The area of population was 18,4 ha, and common quantity is about 172 individuals (ramets). This largest population of this species on the plain part of Ukraine. The coenotic features of population distribution are set. It is shown that within the limits of the population area can be accounted by the structure of upper and ground layers. Plants of G. repens more frequent than all meets in seats, where in composition tree layer participation of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. it is 0,25—0,40. Thus must be at minimum participation of broad-leaved trees and density of canopy Corylus avellana L. in an undergrowth to 0,40. Most population density is formed in the conditions of the developed mossy cover from Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Dicranum polysetum Sw. and prevailing in ground layer the Vacciniumum myrtillus L. Dynamics of vegetation in this plant community takes place in the direction of renewal of native broad-leaved forest. The quantity of population will grow short therefore in future.
GENUS BATRACHIUM (DC.) S.F. GRAY (RANUNCULACEAE) IN UKRAINE
Five species of Batrachium (DC.) S.F. Gray (B. aquatile (L.) Dumort., B. circinatum (Sibth.) Spach, B. fluitans (Lam.) Wimm., B. rionii (Lagger) Nyman., B. trichophyllum (Chaix) Bosch) are represented in the territory of the Ukraine. The determination key for Batrachium species of the Ukraine flora is presented.
FLORISTIC FEATURES OF THE ANDRASHIVSKE LAKE (TRANSCARPATHIAN PLAIN)
The results of the study of the Andrash lake flora are presented. The typological structure of this flora is analized. The tertiar relict Trapa natans L. is discussed in details, and we proposed to arrange the state reserve to protect this species.
VEGETATION OF THE ZAMGLAI ECOCORRIDOR (CHERNIGOV REGION)
Results of vegetation study of the central part of Zamglai valley are provided. Accordance of nature conditions of the valley with criteria of ecocorridor choice is proved. It is proposed to include this territory into the econet of Chernigiv Region as an ecocorridor, which will connect the Dnieper-Sozh and Desna-Snov core areas.
MAP OF VEGETATION OF THE RESERVE AREA "VALLEY OF NARCISSI": (THE TRANSCARPATHIAN REGION)
First the map of vegetation of the reserve area "Valley of Narcissi" has been charted. A legend of the map of vegetation consists of 21 numbers. It is based on ecologo-phytocoenotic classification, its transformation into the legend is made on the basis of typological principle. General botanical and geographical information about principal syntaxa of vegetation in researched area, their connection with main factors of environment are represented here. It is concluded that the vegetation is well represented in all ecological and genetic components of flood-lands with slight swamping and mid shrubbing. Meadow vegetation has high rarity of phytocoenotic fund. Rare phytocoenoses are wide spread and occupies mostly near terrace part of the flood lands with over moistened edaphotopes. The set up geobotanical map would be used as a basis of monitoring of the reserve-caused changes of the reserve area.
NEW LOCALITIES OF DAPHNE SOPHIA KALEN. (THYMELEACEAE) IN UKRAINE
In 2004 first complete survey of the range of Daphne sophia Kalen. in Ukraine was accomplished with support of Rufford Small Grants Scheme. Among 4 sites where Daphne sophia was historically known in the country only 2 sites still support small populations including one rediscovered for the first time since 1910. Two other populations disappeared completely due to terracing and afforestation of chalk slopes. Moreover, two new locations of the species were discovered in Kharkiv region. Therefore, current distribution of Daphne sophia in Ukraine is confined to 4 sites (3 sites along right bank of Vovcha river and 1 site along right bank of Verchnya Dvorichna river).
NEW SPECIES OF THE LECCINUM GRAY GENUS (BOLETACEAE) IN UKRAINE
Brief descriptions and information about distribution of Leccinum quercinum (Pilбt) E.E. Green et Watling and L. vulpinum Watling (Boletales), new species for Ukraine, are given.
First records of the rust fungi (order uredinales) from the Ichnia national nature park 33 species of the order Uredinales were recorded for the Ichniansky National Nature Park in 2006. Nineteen species belong to the genus Puccinia Pers, Phragmidium Link is represented by four species, Melampsora Castagne and Uromyces (Link) Unger — by three each, Coleosporium Lйv., Cronartium Fr. Gymnosporangium R. Hedw. ex DC. and Pucciniastrum G.H. Otth — by one species each.
NEW AND RARE FOR UKRAINE SPECIES OF THE GENUS COPRINUS (PERS.: FR.) GRAY. 2. THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SECTION COPRINUS
In the paper 3 new (Coprinus echinosporus Buller, C. herinkii Pilát et Svrček, C. lagopides P. Karst.) and 2 rare (C. pseudoradiatus Kühner et Joss. ex Watling, C. spilosporus Romagn.) for Ukraine records of the genus Coprinus (Pers.: Fr.) Gray are reported. For all species information about their distribution and peculiarities of biology is presented, and for new in Ukraine ones diagnoses and drawings are also provided.
MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF PYTHIUM ULTIMUM VAR. ULTIMUM TROW — AGENT OF ROOT ROT BRASSICA NAPUS L.
Agent of root rot of Brassica napus L. — Pythium ultimum var. ultimum is isolated in pure culture. Morphological and biological peculiarities and microscopic structure were studied. High pathogenicity of fungus, which doesn't decrease through numeral passages is stated.
ERUCASTRUM GALLICUM (WILLD.) O.E. SCHULZ (CRUCIFERAE) — A NEW ALIEN SPECIES FOR THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS' FLORA
A new alien for the Ukrainian Carpathians flora species Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz — has been found in Nyzhnia Jablon'ka (Lviv region, Turka district) and Slavske (Lviv region, Skole district). Data on location and distribution of the species are adduced. This efemerophyte probably comes to the mountains area along railways from the eastern part of Ukraine, but it may come from Romania, Hungary or Slovakia as well.
I.M. Anishchenko, K.M. Sytnik
ON COMPUTERIZATION OF THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM OF UKRAINE (KW): URGENT TASKS AND PERSPECTIVES
Problems of computerization of the National Herbarium of Ukraine (KW) located at the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany are discussed. A review of main activities in Russia and some other countries of the world is provided. The field names of the used database structure, which will accumulate the information of all herbariums of the Institute in one system, is proposed. Using the developed software, the possibility of creating the web interface of an electronic herbarium is discussed.
TNE CORONILLEAE (ADANS.) BOISS. TRIBE (FABACEAE) OF THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
The article is devoted to morphological investigations of seed's, pollen grains and plants on initial age phases within representatives of tribe Coronilleae (Adans.) Boiss. in Ukrainian flora. The significant diagnostic characters was revealed for taxa of different rank. Pollen grains morphology in 14 tribe's species was investigated. 5 types, 3 subtypes of exine surface were described for the first time. Investigations show heterogeneity of the genus Coronilla L. s. l. It is appropriate to include Coronilla cretica L., C. varia L., C. elegans Panиiж, C. parviflora Willd. into genus Securigera DC., а nd Coronilla emeroides Boiss. et Spruner into genus Hippocrepis L. as H. emerus (L.) Lassen subsp. emeroides (Boiss. et Spruner) Lassen. A new version of Coronilleae tribe taxonomic system was developed. Three nomenclatural novation are proposed: new section was described and two nomenclature combinations for series was made within the genus Securigera.
SUSTAINABILITY OF POPULATONES OF SOLDANELLA HUNGARICA SIMONK. (PRIMULACEAE) IN NATURAL AND DERIVATIVE ECOTONES IN THE CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS
In natural and anthropogenously by transformed ecotones, on the border of subalpine and forest vegetation belts in the Carpathian Mountains, features of spatial patches and vitality structure of populatones of Soldanella hungarica Simonk. are investigated. It is shown, that in the extreme situations caused by human activity the processes of spatial localization of the aggregates are enhanced with maintaining the number of fertile individuals of low vitality. It promoters the sustainment of the minimum sufficient level of local generations renewal but inhibits further replenishment and formation of the integral population of Soldanella hungarica in the Carpathians' ecotones.
CAUSES OF DIFFERENCE OF CLONES HUPERZIA SELAGO (L.) BERNH. EX SCHRANK & MART. THIS MOUNTAIN AND PLAIN POPULATIONS
The structure of clones of Huperzia selago var. patens Desv. is studied on a plain (Polissia) and in mountain (Carpathians). It is shown that in Carpathians clones shallow on an area prevails with the densely placed cones of growth. In mountain clones intensively forms brood buds however have the low part of orthotropic syntelomes with sporangiums. On a plain large clones prevails with the less closeness of placing of cones growths which little form brood buds, but have the high part of orthotropic syntelomes with sporangiums. All noted features of mountain and plain populations are related to the age structure of clones.
VITAL STRATEGY OF RAW MEDICINAL SPECIES WITHIN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE AND ITS REALIZATION IN CONDITIONS OF THE TRANSFORMED ENVIRONMENT
The results of the analysis of vital strategy of species of medicinal plants and its realizations in conditions of the transformed environment are presented. In our opinion, the state of sources of model species including their populations depends on their vital strategy and various limiting factors. It is noted that the perspectives of the raw species sources would be based on specific adaptation of populations to the limiting factors. We established the factors which essentially influence on the state of sources of plant species having the similar vital strategy.
INFLUENCE OF BASIC ANTHROPOGENOUS FACTORS ON VEGETATION OF UPPER BASIN OF THE TYSA RIVER
As a result of research it is defined that the condition of the upper basin of the Tysa river is become worse. Felled areas, overgrazing, non-normalized recreation, quarries are the main negative factors of that. It is found that the most of contemporary wood-cutting areas are not artificially afforested for the last 10 — 15 years. They are in different stages of overgrowing: from cereals to shrubs. Contemporary state and basic factors of transformation of high mountain's plant cover and meadow vegetation of a forest belt are characterized. It has been identified that the present structure of ecosystems of different economic use and of areas with natural vegetation does not fully provide regulatability run-off, in other words, it is insufficiently sustainable and with slight degree of ecoregime tensity.
POLYBLASTIA NEVOI AND CALOPLACA WASSERI – TWO NEW LICHENS FROM ISRAEL
Polyblastia nevoi S. Zelenko, O. Breuss & S. Kondr. sp. nov., differing from Agonimia allobata by smaller ascospores and lack of three - layered perithecium wall, from Upper Galilee (Israel) as well as Caloplaca wasseri Khodosovtsev et S. Kondr. sp. nov., differing from Caloplaca phlogina by endolithic thallus with punctiform soralia and wider ascospores, from Negev desert (Israel) are described, compared with allied fungi and illustrated.
POWDERY MILDEWS AND RUSTS OF THE VOLYZHYN WOOD (THE BLACK SEA BIOSPHERE RESERVE, UKRAINE)
46 species of the order Erysiphales and 26 species of the order Uredinales are recorded for the investigated territory. 31 species are new for the Black Sea Biosphere Reserve. Erysiphe mayorii, E. penicillata and Tranzschelia discolor are noted for the first time for the steppe zone of Ukraine. Many plants are new hosts of powdery mildews and rusts.
NEW AND RARE FOR UKRAINE SPECIES OF THE GENUS COPRINUS (PERS.: FR.) GRAY. 3. THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SECTIONS PSEUDOCOPRINUS (KÜHNER) P.D. ORTON ET WALING AND VELIFORMES (FR.) PENN.
In the paper 5 new (Coprinus callinus M. Lange et A. H. Sm., C. cortinatus J. E. Lange, C. ellisii P. D. Orton, C. pellucidus P. Karst., C. utrifer (Joss.) Watling) and 1 rare (C. truncorum (Scop.) Fr.) for Ukraine records of the genus Coprinus (Pers.: Fr.) Gray are reported. For all the species information about their distribution and biology is given and for new ones diagnoses and drawings are also provided.
CALCIUM DEPENDENT INFLUENCE OF THE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ON HEAT RESISTANCE OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. COLEOPTILES
The influence of an exogenous hydrogen peroxide (Н2О2) on dynamics of a lipide peroxidation (LPO) and heat resistance of Triticum aestivum L. coleoptiles have been studied. Two-hour treatment of pieces by 10 mM Н2О2 caused reversible intensifying the LPO and raised heat resistance of coleoptiles. Effects of Н2О2 were taken out by LaCl3 (blocker of calcium channels) and chlorpromazinum (antagonist of calmodulin). It is supposed, that LPO intensifying under the influence hydrogen peroxide caused an induction of plant cells defense reactions with participation of calcium dependent signaling systems.
CONCEPTIONS OF THE LIGNIFICATION OF CELLS WALLS
The article highlights the chemical composition, ferments of synthesis and changes of lignification processes under the influence of different environmental factors.
Peculiarities of rearrangemet in cell wall composition caused by external stimuli are described. The investigation of mutants and transgenic plants proves the metabolic plasticity of lignin biosynthesis.
A NEW LOCALITY OF GENTIANA ACAULIS L. (GENTIANACEAE) IN THE SKOLE BESKYDY MTS (THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS)
The most westward locality in the Carpathian part of area of Gentiana acaulis L. — the Red Book of Ukraine's species, was discovered in the Skole Beskydy Mts.(the Ukrainian Carpathians).
Yu.R. Shelyag - Sosonko
BIODIVERSITY: PARADIGM AND DEFINITION
As it is asserted in the article the biodiversity is the most important and complex far from cognized life phenomenon defined all existent sides of human being and world society including physiological, psychological, spiritual, ecological, economic, political and other directions. At the close of the past century the destructive processes of developed countries initiated the world entropic stage of biodiversity. Thereby its role and significance were incommensurable with extremely insufficient notice to this stage from the side both of scientists and authorities. Self - organization, self - restoration, self - development and self - perfection are inherent in biodiversity. Two new definitions - synonyms are introduced: elementary biosphere and individual econiche. New logical and methodical definition of biodiversity as a totality of elementary biospheres or of individual econiches of the terrestrial globe or of any its territory or of an aquatic area is represented here. An organism and individual biosphere formed by it is an elementary structural unit of biodiversity organization. The biocentrizm is a paradigm of biodiversity. It is suggested to emphasize the genetic and transformational biodiversity systems represented by species, coenoses and ecosystems on basis of functions peculiar to each organism (sequel of generation and environment transformation). All definitions represented in the article are not identically to the same published.
TERRITORIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF VEGETATION OF THE NATIONAL NATURE PARK "VYZHNYTSKY"
First the map of vegetation of the national nature park "Vyzhnytsky" has been charted. A legend of the map of vegetation of the national nature park "Vyzhnytsky" consists of 20 numbers. It is based on ecologo-phytocoenotic classification, its transformation into the legend is made on the basis of typological principle. General botanical and geographical information about principal syntaxa of vegetation in researched area, their connection with main factors of environment are represented here. It is concluded that the vegetation is syntaxonomically diverse, slightly broken with predominance of phytocoenoses of subformation Piceeto (abietis) - Fageto (sylvaticae) - Abieta (albaе), Abieto (albaе) - Piceeto (abietis) - Fageta (sylvaticae). The set up geobotanical map with explanation text is the most detailed survey map of vegetation of the national nature park "Vyzhnytsky" and would be used as a basis of monitoring of its reserve-caused changes.
CHARACTER OF DISTRIBUTION OF SPRING EPHEMEROIDS IN BROADLEAVED AND CONIFEROUS-BROADLEAVED FORESTS OF UKRAINE
Constancy and average cover of forest spring ephemeroids in different regions of Ukraine have been calculated. The forests which are the subject of the analysis includes communities of the orders Fagetalia sylvaticae s.l., Quercetalia pubescentis and Q. roboris. The basic material consists of 1375 spring releves. They have been divided into 49 territorial releves groups. Constancy and average cover for 23 species in all these groups are given on maps. Сorrection based on areas of communities with different ephemeroids composition has been made. Areas with a uniform composition of ephemeroids are shown on fig. 3. Constancy and average cover of the species for the areas are given in table.
RARE SPECIES IN THE VALLEY OF THE SEIM RIVER ON THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE
New localities are reported for 3 species Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) So, Gladiolus tenuis Bieb., Orchis palustris Jacq. listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine and also for localities of 1 rare species for Chernigiv region Iris sibirica L. in the valley of the Seim river. The habitats and caenotic features of all localities are characterised. Also strength populations characteristics for these species are provided.
THE TYPOLOGY OF AGROPHYTOCENOSES OF GRAIN CROPS IN THE LEFTSHORE OF UKRAINE FOREST-STEPPE (SUMY REGION)
The results of phytocenotic investigations in grain crops in Forest-Steppe of Sumy region were presented. In agrophytocenoses of spring wheat, winter wheat, barley, backwheat, field peas it was revealed the weed species composition, the principal agrotypes of weed were established.
LICHENS OF POLTAVA TOWN
The results of investigation of Poltava town lichen flora and their systematic and ecological analysis are presented. The lichen flora of Poltava included 75 species of 35 genera and 15 families. It is established that the lichen flora of Poltava resemble the natural lichen flora of the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
THE LICHENS OF ZMIINY ISLAND (UKRAINE)
As a result of research of lichen flora of Zmiiny Island (Ukraine) 72 species of lichens are identified, among which Opegrapha demutata, O. chevallieri and Physcia tenella subsp. marina are new for territory of Ukraine, and also 10 new species for the Steppe zone of Ukraine and 47 — are new for northwestern Prychornomor'ya. The systematic structure of lichen flora, distribution of lichens on various substratum types, frequency, and also relation of lichen flora of studied island with other steppe lichen floras, are analyzed in the article.
MORCHELLA STEPPICOLA ZER.: MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES, ULTRASTRUCTURE, DISTRIBUTION IN SOUTH - EAST PART OF UKRAINE
In the article new places of distribution Morchella steppicola Zer. in the South - East part of Ukraine are indicated. 15 points of a growth of the given species in Donetsk region, 2 points in Lugansk and 1 — in the Zaporozhye region are marked. Places of fructification of a M. steppicola are described. For the first time with the help of a scanning electron microscopy peculiarities of macromorphology of fruit bodies and ultrastructures of ascus, paraphysises and ascospores of M. steppicola are investigated.
INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RADIAL GROWTH RATE AND CULTURAL MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS OF GANODERMA APPLANATUM (PERS.: WALLR.) PAT AND G. LUCIDUM (CURT.: FR) P. KARS STRAINS
Influence of different temperatures (5, 12, 20, 28, 32о С) on the radial growth rate and cultural morphological features on bear wort agar medium were studied for 13 strains of G. applanatum and 27 strains of G. lucidum. It is set that a temperature considerably influenced on strain variability of the growth rate colonies. Тhe temperature 28о С was optimal for growth rate in the most of strains and for other — 32о С. Temperature condition from 20 to 32о С did not influence on the type of colonies 5 strains of G. applanatum and 10 strains of G. lucidum. The increase of temperature to 28 and 32о С of incubation of cultures changed the type of colonies at 8 strains of G. applanatum and at 17 strains of G. lucidum.
THE STIMULATION OF SEED GERMINATION OF CENTAUREA CARPATICA (PORC.) PORC. (ASTERACEAE) BY COPPER AND BORON SUBSTANCES
The positive influence of microelement substances (copper and boron) on Centaurea carpatica seed germination was shown. Copper (0,02%) and boron (0,01%, 0,02%) increase the seed germination on 6,0, 18,0 and 13,3% respectively. The microelements (0,04% copper, 0,01% boron) decrease the germination time (р>0,999). The morphometric parameters of growing seedlings and the contents of photosynthetic pigments in 14 days old seedlings leaves were represented.
FROST RESISTANCE OF MAGNOLIAS AND ICE FORMATION IN TISSUES OF SHOOTS
The process of ice formation in bark and wood of shoots contrasting in frost resistance of some species of the genus Magnolia by method of differential thermal analysis (DTA) has been analysed. It has been established, that the amplitudes of exothermic process for the frost resistant species (M. kobus, M. salicifolia) differ greatly by nature of ice formation in different tissues and are 2-3о C higher than less resistant species (M. liliflora, M. denudata, M. x soulangiana). DTA of ice formation determines very clear and demonstrative a plant reaction on unfavorable influence of changeable temperatures in winter period and may be used as an index of plant frost resistance.
ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATION OF PETROSELINUM CRISPUM (MILL.) A.W. HILL. LEAVES
It is established on the basis of conducting researches that the anatomical construction of ternate leaf petiolules are more compound then the petioles of first real leaf.
TRICHOPHORUM PERS. (CYPERACEAE) — NEW GENUS FOR THE UKRAINIAN FLORA
The herbarium speciman Trichophorum cespitosum (L.) Hartm. (Cyperaceae Juss.) from the territory of Transcarpathians had been found in the herbarium (BP) of National Natural Museum of Hungary (Budapest), which has been new genus and new species for the flora of Ukraine. Nomenclature quotation, morphology descriptions, information about area and ecology peculiarities are covered for these taxa. Supposition about the most probable habitats of T. cespitosum on the territory of the Ukrainian Carpathians are indicated.
PHYSARUM NUDUM T. MACBR., A NEW SPECIES OF SLIME MOLDS FOR UKRAINE
Physarum nudum T. Macbr. is reported as a new species of slime molds for the territory of Ukraine. Its intensive development on lawns in Donetsk city caused the earlier unknown phenomenon of "lawns' charring". Information on Ph. nudum morphology and distribution is provided.
EGERIA DENSA PLANCHON (HYDROCHARITACEAE) — THE NEW SPECIES FOR CONTINENTAL PART OF UKRAINE
There is new species of the water vascular plant Egeria densa Planchon has been found in the Dnipro near Kyiv.