2010 (№1 №2 №3 №4 №5 №6)
THE ROLE OF BIODIVERSITY AT THE MODERN STAGE OF CIVILIZATION
Based on the analysis of the current state of the biosphere, the author emphasizes that at present the world community has no more important problem than the status of biodiversity. This conclusion stems from the analysis of V.I. Vernadsky's concept of the biosphere, as well as from its current state. It is postulated that the modern global ecological and social crisis and misbalance of the biosphere are rooted in destruction of biodiversity, mostly by industrialized countries. It is emphasized that the main urgent task of the humankind is conservation and restoration of biodiversity, firs of all forests, on the areas sufficient for maintaining the stable biosphere balance. These areas should be assessed mainly by botanists and ecologists.
P.M. Ustymenko, D.V. Dubyna, L.P. Vakarenko
THE RARE PHYTOCENOTIC STOCK OF UKRAINE: STRUCTURE AND ANALYSIS
An analysis of the rare phytocenotic stock (phytocenofund) represented in the Green Data Book of Ukraine (the first nationwide official governmental document on conservation of plant communities) is presented. Quantitative representation of rare associations by vegetation types is provided; the list of formations with the highest representation of the rare phytocenofund in each vegetation type is compiled. Distribution of rare associations in Ukraine, their phytotcenotic and phytogeographical significance, representation in nature conservation units are analyzed. A brief comparative analysis of the rare phytocenofund is given. Current tasks for conservation of vegetation are considered.
THE PLANT COVER OF THE KOZARY (KOZARSKY) FOREST, SOUTHWESTERN CHERNIGIV REGION
Vegetation of the Kozary (Kozarsky) Forest was investigated. Characterization of cenoses of main vegetation syntaxa is given. Species listed in Annex I of the Bern Convention, the Red Data Book of Ukraine, and the regional list of rare species are revealed in plant communities. Justifications are provided for giving the Kozarska Dacha Forest the status of the botanical preserve (zakaznik) of national significance.
SUBPOPULATIONAL AND POPULATIONAL DYNAMICS OF SOLDANELLA HUNGARICA SIMONK. (PRIMULACEAE) UNDER CONDITIONS OF RESERVATION (THE CHORNOHORA RIDGE, THE CARPATHIANS)
Based on results of long-term monitoring, dynamic patterns of natural populations of Soldanella hungarica Simonk. in spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians are generalized. Proofs are furnished that the physical size and vitality structure of subpopulation loci cause asynchrony of their functioning and considerable amplitude of dynamic processes. Unlike subpopulation loci, populations demonstrate reversible dynamics of their numbers, as well as low range and prolonged periods of turnover cycles. The opinion is expressed that the use of the term «small population» in relation to subpopulation loci is incorrect.
DEFORESTATION OF THE RIGHT-BANK MIDDLE DNIPRO AREA WITHIN KIROVOGRAD REGION: MODERN STATUS AND TENDENCIES
The modern processes of deforestation of landscapes of the Right-Bank Middle Dnipro Area within Kirovograd Region in the forest tracts Chornyi, Chuta and some others are investigated. Through analyses of satellite images and subsequent electronic processing of data, the following parameters were assessed: the deforestation level of the region; peculiarities of spatial distribution of deforestation processes; affected area indicators; the causes and modern tendencies of development. A schematic map is compiled. The author proposes to create the Podniprovske Chornolissya National Nature Park within the limits of Kirovograd and Cherkassy regions for improving the existing situation and general conservation of landscapes and biodiversity of the Right-Bank Middle Dnipro Area. The core areas of the proposed protected unit could be the native forest-steppe stands of oak and hornbeam-oak forests — Chornyi, Chuta, Nerubay, Yanychanskyi, Motronenskyi, Kamyanskyi, and others.
ISSUES OF CONSERVATION OF SPECIES OF CARYOPHYLLACEAE IN UKRAINE
Results of the assessment of conservation status of rare and threatened species of Caryophyllaceae in Ukraine demonstrated that 64 species (28, 44 % of total number of species in the family in Ukraine) are in need of conservation activities aimed at conservation and restoration of their populations. The arealogical analysis has shown that the studied species can be placed in 31 geoelements comprising four types of ranges; most species-rich is the European type that includes species at the limits of their ranges, and endemic species (22 geoelements: the Northern Black Sea area — 15, the Crimea — 6, the Carpathians — 6, Volhyno-Podolia — 4). Most of rare and threatened species occur in the Steppe zone (30), Forest-Steppe (14), the Crimea (16), the Carpathians (13); they are less numerous in the Polissya (forest) zone (9), Trans-Carpathia (2), with practically never being as dominant in plant communities in Ukraine, but mostly assectators. By occurrence in cenose types, most of them are petrophytes (28), less species are psammophytes (15), pratants (9), stepants (8), and a few sylvants (2) and paludants (2). By the range of cenotic amplitude, most of them are stenotopic species (42), some hemistenotopic (20), and only two species are hemieurytopic. By their strategies, most of the species are patients (76%), but a considerable number of taxa belong to explerents (24 %). 55,4 % of species colonize extreme habitats, being stress-tolerants; 36,9 % are competitors, and 6,25 % are ruderals. Analysis of representation of rare and threatened species in protected areas in Ukraine testify to an insufficient level of activities aimed at their conservation.
V.I. Melnyk, A.R. Baransky, V.O. Volodymyrets, A.A. Rak, O.I. Shynder
NEW DATA ON GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF RARE SPECIES OF THE FLORA OF VOLHYNIAN POLISSYA
New localities of 12 rare plant species were found in 2007—2008 during floristic surveys in the territory of the eastern part of Volhynian Polesye (NW Ukraine). Among them there are species listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine (Astrantia major, Carlina cirsioides, Epipactis helleborine, Goodyera repens, Lycopodiella inundata) and regionally rare species (Aconitum lasiostomum, Aruncus vulgaris, Clematis recta, Dianthuspseudoserotinus, Luzula sylvatica, Polypodium vulgare, Trollius europaeus). New data on chorology and cenology of these species are presented.
TAXONOMIC STRUCTURE OF THE URBAN FLORA OF CHERNIHIV
The species composition is established for the Chernihiv urban flora, which contains 1050 species belonging to 470 genera and 115 families. An analysis of its taxonomic structure is given, as well as the results of comparison of its main proportions and taxonomic spectra with other urban floras (such as Bryansk, Kryvyi Rig, Kirovograd, Kherson, Mykolaiv, Simferopol, Uzhgorod, and urban floras of Male Polissya) and the flora of Eastern Polissya. It is demonstrated that the Chernihiv urban flora is boreal and retain zonal floristic features. By the structure of taxonomic spectra and basic main proportions of floral elements, the studied flora is most similar to the urban flora of Bryansk and the flora of Eastern Polissya in general.
Z.M. Tsymbalyuk, S.L. Mosyakin
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENUS DIGITALIS L. (SCROPHULARIACEAE s.l.)
Pollen grains of 11 species (28 specimens) from 2 genera of tribe Digitaleae were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of the studied species are 3-colporate, prolate, spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, middle- to small-sized. Six types of sculpture are identified for the first time: psilate, rugulate, foveolate, rugulate-foveolate, reticulate, and striate-reticulate. Diagnostic features at the level of sections and subsections of the genus Digitalis are the sculpture type and its details. Pollen grains of Digitalis are similar to those of Erinus by their type of apertures, shape and size of pollen grains, which confirms the close phylogenetic relatedness of these genera. Palynomorphological peculiarities are well correlated with the traditional systems of Digitalis modified according to recent molecular phylogenetic studies. Similarity of pollen grains of Digitalis and Erinus to those of representatives of Veronica sections Pseudolysimachiumand Alsinebe is probably a result of parallel evolution in more distantly related groups, which is in accordance with their placement in the family Veronicaceae, as suggested by results of molecular phylogenetic studies.
Ya.P. Didukh, Yu.A. Vasheniak, M.M. Fedoronchuk
NEW LOCALITIES OF RARE SPECIES IN THE CENTRAL PART OF PODILLYA AND ADJACENT REGIONS
New localities of rare plant species in the central part of Podillya and adjacent territories are reported; a map of locatities, short characteristics of rare species, and their distribution in Ukraine are provided.
GROENLANDIA DENSA (L.) FOURR. (POTAMOGETONACEAE) — A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE NEW GENUS IN THE UKRAINIAN FLORA
Groenlandia densa (L.) Fourr. is reported for the first time for the Ukrainian flora. It was found in a pond in the town of Boryslav. Morphological description of the species is given. Data on the geographic range of the species and information on ecological characteristics of the new locality are also provided.
NEW RECORDS OF ASCOMYCOTA ON EPHEDRADISTACHYA L.FROM UKRAINE
Six species of fungi on Ephedradistachya L. are reported for the first time in Ukraine: Aposphaeriaephedrae Kravtzev, Cucurbitaria ephedricola Esfand., Teichosporaephedrae Esfand., Camarosporiumephedrae Cooke & Massee, Lophiostoma ephedrae Hollos and Phomaephedrae Gonz. Frag. The first three species are newly recorded in Europe. These fungi occur exclusively on Ephedra L. and each species is known in only a few locations. All specimens described in the paper were collected in 2007 in Chornomorsky biosphere reserve (Kherson oblast) except for Phomaephedrae found in 2005 in Luhansk nature reserve (Luhansk oblast). Species descriptions, localities, general distribution and illustrations are provided.
THE MODERN STATE OF TAXONOMY OF SUBDIVISION PUCCINIOMYCOTINA
Recent publications on systematics of the subdivision Pucciniomycotina are surveyed. According to
modern opinions, this subdivision comprises 8 classes: Agaricostilbomycetes, Atractiellomycetes,
Cla ssiculomycetes, Cryptomycocolacomycetes, Cystobasidiomycetes, Microbotryomycetes, Myxiomycetes and Pucciniomycetes. The most diverse of them is Pucciniomycetes – about 8000 species.
THE СONTENT AND FORMS OF CELLULOSE IN LEAVES OF ECOMORPHS OF SIUM LATIFOLIUM L. AT THE VEGETATIVE GROWTH PHASE
The total content of cellulose and its amorphous and crystalline forms in leaves of air-aquatic and terrestrial ecomorphs of heterophyllous Sium latifolium at the vegetative growth phase were investigated. Distribution patterns of relative contents of cellulose in the cell walls of epidermis and mesophyll in leaves have been revealed by laser-confocal microscopy. Dependence of the relative content of cellulose in cell walls on the tissue type and environmental conditions was demonstrated. It is concluded that aquatic conditions for plant growth lead to higher contents of amorphous cellulose and to lower content of total cellulose than those in leaves of terrestrial form of S. latifolium during the vegetative growth phase.
N.V. Nuzhyna, T.V. Kolomiyets
TRICHOMES OF PLANTS OF GENUS BILLBERGIA THUNB. AS AN ADDITIONAL TAXONOMIC CHARACTER AND ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION
The anatomic comparative characterization of foliar trichomes of plants belonging to genus Billbergia Thunb. (20 taxa) is given. The taxonomic value of absorbing trichomes and their ecophysiological role for adaptation of plants to various conditions of habitat are discussed.
FRACTIONAL COMPOSITION OF PROTEINS IN THE BIOMASS OF UNIALGAL AND MIXED ALGAE CULTURES
Redistribution of the fractional composition of proteins accompanied by changes in a relative content of individual fractions is registered in mixed cultures of algae. Not all fractions registered in one or both monocultures were found in the biomass of mixed algae cultures. At the same time, mixed algae cultures were characterized by the presence of specific fractions not peculiar to unialgal cultures (monocultures).
V.S. Tkachenko, Ya.P. Didukh, I.A. Korotchenko
VEGETATION OF ZMIYINY ISLAND
Results of the first detailed geobotanical survey of Zmiyiny Island (Kiliysky District of Odessa Region,
Ukraine) are presented. The survey was accompanied by a detailed vegetation mapping, profiling
and collecting a representative array of standard (100 m2) geobotanical (phytosociological) releves.
It is shown that the natural vegetation occupies 75.5% of the total area of the island, and soon
may reach 83%, and only about 17% of the area is unsuitable for growth of vascular plants (maritime
abrasive rocks and buildings). Formation of vegetation is limited by island’s isolation and a number
of environmental factors, major of which are the absence of carbonates in soils and rocks, underdeveloped
soil, climatic features of the vegetation season etc. In the ecological serial line of phytocoenoses
development, communities of two major stages combine in a complex network: pioneer and rhizomatous
grasses, but there is no bunchgrass stage, typical to continental steppes, between them.
Succession leads to a stable level of edaphically specified subclimax rhizomatous grass coenostructures
dominated by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth, and Elytrigia repens
(L.) Nevski. A large set of natural phytocoenoses represents savannoid communities dominated
by Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel., Anisantha tectorum (L.) Nevski, Hordeum leporinum Link, and
others. Such phytocoenotic diversity, and seral development of plant communities, confirm the conclusion
that Zmiyiny Island is an island, not a cliff. Measures are proposed to protect the island
phytobiota and to control its state.
Shelyag-Sosonko Yu.R., Ustymenko P.M., Dubyna D.V.
SYNTAXONOMIC DIVERSITY OF FOREST VEGETATION
IN THE TISA (TISZA) RIVER VALLEY AND ITS TRIBUTARIES
Physical and geographical conditions of the Tisa (Tisza) river valley are considered, syntaxonomic
composition of forest vegetation is presented. The current status of forest vegetation in the regions
described in detail; its diversity is classified in eight formations (Querceta roboris, Querceta petraeae,
Carpineta betuli, Saliceta albae, Saliceta fragilis, Populeta nigrae, Alneta glutinosae, Tilieta argenteae).
The article outlines the anthropic transformation patterns of forest vegetation due to the impact of
modern anthropogenic factors. Associations rare of national and regional levels are distinguished.
VEGETATIONAL CHANGES IN OLD MEMORIAL PARKS IN VINNITSA REGION
The article considers distribution of wooded area in eight old memorial parks of national importance
in Vinnitsa Region, in particular, between area ratios of communities formed by particular species,
orchards, avenues, row plantings, and meadows (glades). Present-day park plantations of forest,
park and alpine types of garden-park landscapes in these parks are compared with tree stands of indigenous
forests. It is shown that the present-day ash-dominated park plantations, as a rule, are the
result of indigenous oak groves being replaced by derivative plantations.
O.A. Ignatyuk, S.Ya. Didenko
INTRAPOPULATIONAL DIVERSITY AND ITS CHANGES
IN LOCAL POPULATIONS OF GALANTHUS PLICATUS (AMARYLLIDACEAE)
UNDER VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Results of studies of two local populations of Galanthus plicatus in Cherkasy Region are presented.
A method for assessment of intrapopulational diversity is proposed. This method is based on analysis
of configuration and size of spots on inner perianth segments (petals). The phenotypic diversity patterns
in two local populations are identified using variance and entropic approaches. The inverse
correlation between stability of environmental conditions and phenotypic diversity was found.
M.M. Fedoronchuk, S.L. Mosyakin, M.V. Shevera, L.M. Gubar
SPECIES OF FAMILY POACEAE DESCRIBED FROM UKRAINE:
GENERA CLEISTOGENES KENG, DACTYLIS L., ELYMUS L.,
ELYTRIGIA DESV., ERAGROSTIS WOLF, FESTUCA L.
The list of species of vascular plants of the family Poaceae (Сleistogenes Keng, Dactylis L., Elymus L.,
Elytrigia Desv., Eragrostis Wolf, Festuca L.), described from Ukraine, and typification of some species
are provided. The following data of each species are provided: basionym, original nomenclatural
citation; type according to protologue, holotype, isotype, lectotype, isolectotype; herbarium (-a) at
which the speciemen(s) is (are) deposited.
N.G. Dremliuga, S.M. Ziman
CAMPANULA TALIEVII JUZ., A RARE ENDEMIC SPECIES OF THE FLORA OF CRIMEA
The comparative-morphologic analysis is provided for three allied taxa from genus Campanula L.
(section Medium DC., subsection Triloculare Boiss.: C. sibirica L., C. taurica Juz., C. talievii Juz.)
occurring in Crimea and regarded in modern literature as comprising one species. As a result of study
of their life forms and the flower and pollen morphology, we conclude that C. talievii should be treated
as a separate species.
PECULIARITIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND MORPHOSTRUCTURE
OF A RELICT ENDEMIC PLANT OF THE MOUNTAIN CRIMEA,
SOBOLEWSKIA SIBIRICA (WILLD.) P.W. BALL (BRASSICACEAE)
Populations of a relict endemic plant of the Crimean flora, Sobolewskia sibirica (Willd.) P.W. Ball, are
localized on debris slopes of the upper belt of the Main Range of the Crimean Mountains. The life
cycle and functional zonal structure of plants were studied in situ and ex situ. It is determined that
S. sibirica belongs to the biennial monocarpic type and it starts to blossom on the second year. The
generative plants of S. sibirica comprise the system of generative monocarpic shoots. Functional and
zonal structure of monocarpic shoots consists of the enrichment zone and zone of top raceme.
Hypocotyl and root, which have the store of gypocotylyc and roots buds, belongs to the regeneration
zone. Presence or absence of the inhibition zone is connected with peculiarities of plant development
in conditions of a short and droughty vegetational period, when the buds in the lower plant part sleep
during whole ontogenesis. The plant is not propagated vegetatively.
A.P. Iljinska, L.M.Nytsenko
REACTION TO WETTING OF SEEDS OF SPECIES
OF SUPERTRIBUS BRASSICIDINAE V. AVET. (BRASSICACEAE)
OF THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
Reaction to wetting of seeds of 53 species of the flora of Ukraine, belonging to 19 genera of supertribus
Brassicidinae V. Avet. (Brassicaceae) was studied. For 23 species such data were received for the first
time. The relationship between reaction of seeds to wetting and the structure of fruits, and also the
taxonomic and ecological importance of the investigated feature of seeds are discussed.
A TAXONOMIC OVERVIEW OF THE GENUS EUPHRASIA L. IN UKRAINE
A critical taxonomic revision of the genus Euphrasia L. in the Ukrainian flora is presented. The
modified system of the genus (for taxa occurring in Ukraine) includes 2 sections, 7 subsections (the
new combination, subsect. Pectinatae (Pugsley) Peregrym, is validated), 18 species, and 4 subspecies.
Nomenclature, data on distribution and habitats are given for each species. A key to species of
Euphrasia in the flora of Ukraine is presented.
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENUS SCROPHULARIA L.
(SCROPHULARIACEAE s. str.) IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
Pollen morphology of 9 species of the genus Scrophularia was examined using the light and scanning
electron microscopy. Pollen grains of 8 species are described in detail for the first time. Pollen grains
of Scrophularia are 3-colporate, prolate, spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, medium-sized. Two types
of sporoderma sculpture (reticulate and implecto-reticulate) are identified and described based on
scanning electron microscopy studies. The palynomorphological data were analyzed on the background
of the system of Scrophularia. Characters of surface sculpture and peculiarities of aperture
structure are diagnostic on the level of subsections and series.
О.I. Sokolova, M.V. Berezhnyy, N.J. Butilkina
NEW LOCALITIES OF PLANT SPECIES LISTED
IN THE RED DATA BOOK OF UKRAINE, IN THE TERRITORY
OF DONETSK AND STAROBILSK STEPPES
During research expeditions in 2006–2008 in the Donetsk and Starobilsk steppes we found 50 new
localities of 6 species of plants (Paeonia tenuifolia L., Tulipa schrenkii Regel (T. gesneriana L. s.l.),
Tulipa ophiophylla Klok. et Zoz, Tulipa quercetorum Klok. et Zoz, Fritillaria meleagroides Patrin ex
Schult. et Schult. f., Fritillaria ruthenica Wikstr.), which are listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine.
DISTRIBUTION OF CALCIUM IONS IN MESOPHYLL
AND EPIDERMIS CELLS IN LEAVES OF SIUM LATIFOLIUM L.
AIR-AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL FORMS
The distribution and the relative content of calcium ions in leaf mesophyll and epidermis cells of Sium
latifolium L. of air-aquatic and terrestrial ecoforms in vegetative phase have been investigated by the cytochemical
method and with using of laser confocal microscopy. Air-aquatic plants had aired (above-water)
and submerged leaves (triple pinnatisect), while terrestrial plants had leaves with unbroken entire-kind
leaflet and pinnatifid leaflet. Calcium ions were revealed in chloroplasts, nuclei, cytoplasm and cell walls
of mesophyll cells independent on plant ecoform and leaf type of S. latifolium. The differences of calcium
ions content in chloroplasts, nuclei and cell walls of mesophyll, and in cell walls of adaxial and abaxial
epidermis were established in the different leaves of both plant forms by the Pascal program. The correlation
of decrease of calcium ions content in the chloroplasts with the decrease of chlorophylls content in
the submerged leaves has been revealed in comparison with above-water (air) leaves of S. latifolium of airwater
form. The certain redistribution of calcium ions in cell walls of epidermis of differ leaves of S. latifolium air-aquatic and a terrestrial form was revealed. It is suggested that the remarkable plasticity in distribution
of calcium ions in mesophyll and epidermis cells of leaves is adaptation sign for heterophyllous
S. latifolium at vegetative stage under change of environment.
R.N. Fomishyna, O.O. Syvash, T.O. Zakharova, O.K. Zolotar'ova
EFFECT OF CLINOROTATION ON ACTIVITY OF ENZYMES OF TETRAPYRROLE
COMPOUNDS METABOLISM IN BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.) SEEDLINGS
Chlorophyllase and d-aminolevulinic acid dehidratase activities, pigments content in barley (Hordeum
vulgare L.) seedlings grown on the slow horizontal clinostat and vertical control were studied.
It was found that chlorophyllase activity markedly decline under clinorotation. Activity of
d-aminolevulinic acid dehidratase tested in the process of greening of etiolated barley seedlings was
significantly lower in clinorotated plants than in control.
WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF OUR FORESTS?
Successions of forest vegetation are directed towards more umbrophytic, edaphically rich communities as compared to the ones existing under current conditions. This is indicated by the undergrowth character. Of particular interest is Acer platanoides, forests of which are practically absent in Ukraine; however, this species forms thick undergrowth in the woods of class Querco-Fagetea. The article provides an analysis of characteristics of its branches and leaf blades, their morphological and anatomical structure, augmentation, formation of the stem and root systems that favors this species in relation to other nemoral species under shaded conditions. On the basis of «gap model» approaches we concluded that maple requires a «window» 2-3 times wider than Carpinus betulus or Tilia cordata to reach the first illuminated layer, and because of that all benefits of A. platanoides are lost, so this species loses the competition. On slopes, T. cordata is under favoring conditions, because its stem is capable of bending. Although today, in connection with environment changes, favorable conditions for A. platanoides are forming, biomorphological features of this species cannot increase realization of these potential benefits.
G. G. Zhilyaev
SUBPOPULATIONAL STRUCTURE AS A FUNCTION OF VITALITY COMPOSITION AND ITS ROLE IN AUTOREGULATION OF POPULATIONOF SOLDANELLA HUNGARICA SIMONK. (PRIMULACEAE)
Patterns of subpopulation organisation of Soldanella hungarica Simonk.(Primulaceae) were studied in the Carpathians by long-term monitoring of Mugetum luzulosum plant community. It was established that spatial localization of aggregations resulting from heterogeneity in the individual vitality forms the basis for homeostasis and maintenance of viability in the natural historically formed plant populations.
ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HABITATS OF RARE PLANT SPECIES IN THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS
The main types of habitats of rare plant species in the Ukrainian Carpathians are described. These species are restricted mostly to the sites with special ecological conditions, geological structure or landforms, namely high-mountain, rocky, marshy and spring sites. A considerable number of rare species is confined to calcareous bedrock. Stenotopic species occurring in each type of habitats are listed and certain patterns of their distribution revealed. Some considerations on conservation of these habitats are presented as well.
L.G. Bezusko, S.L. Mosyakin, A.G. Bezusko
NEW PALEOCLIMATIC RECONSTRUCTION FOR THE ALLEROD AND LATE DRYAS OF THE PLAIN PART OF UKRAINE
New results of quantitative assessment of climatic indicators (average January temperature, average July temperature, and average annual temperature, as well average annual precipitation) are presented for the Allerod and Late Dryas periods for the plain part of Ukraine. Paleoclimatic reconstruction were carried out on the basis of detailed palynological characteristics of sediments of the Allerod (AL-1, AL-2, AL-3) and the Late Dryas (DR-3) periods for Ikva-1, Doroshev, Romankovo and Klopotovske sections by using the information-statistical method of V.A. Klimanov [1976, 1985]. New data and previous studies indicate that all climate indicators for the Allerod and Late Dryas periods for the plain part of Ukraine were lower than today. For the first time, the internal oscillations of paleotemperatures and paleoprecipitation in the Allerod (AL-1, AL-2, AL-3) were evaluated quantitatively for the forest and forest-steppe zones of Ukraine. It was also found that in comparison with the first half of the Late Dryas, the second half of the Late Dryas has a trend towards a more marked reduction of paleoclimatic indicators. In order to clarify the issues of relics and refugia (primary and secondary) and postglacial migrations in the territory of Ukraine, it is efficient to use a new generalisation of paleoclimatic reconstructions of the quantitative level for the Allerod and Late Dryas.
A.P. Iljinska, L.M.Nytsenko
REACTION TO WETTING OF SEEDS OF SPECIES OF SUPERTRIBUS BRASSICIDINAE V. AVET. (BRASSICACEAE) OF THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
Reaction to wetting of seeds of 53 species of the flora of Ukraine, belonging to 19 genera of supertribus Brassicidinae V. Avet. (Brassicaceae) was studied. For 23 species such data were received for the first time. The relationship between reaction of seeds to wetting and the structure of fruits, and also the taxonomic and ecological importance of the investigated feature of seeds are discussed.
N.M. Shyіan, S.L. Mosyakin, M.M. Fedoronchuk, M.V. Shevera
TYPIFICATION OF TAXA OF FAMYLY ASTERACEAE IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE. PART I (GENERA ACHILLEA L., ANTHEMIS L., ARCTIUM L.).
The list of species of vascular plants of the Asteraceae family (genera Achillea, Anthemis, Arctium) described from Ukraine is presented. For each species the following data are provided: basyonim; synonymy, protologue, nomenclatural type and its location.
A CRITICAL REVISION OF THE SECTION SYLLINUM GRISEB. OF THE GENUS LINUM L. IN THE UKRAINIAN FLORA
Results of a critical taxonomic study of the section Syllinum (Griseb.) Planch of the genus Linum L. in the Ukrainian flora are presented. The species composition of the section is specified; diagnostic values of morphological characteristics, geographical distribution and possible evolutionary trends in the section Syllinum are analyzed.
V.V. Kucherevskyi, A.D. Tsurenkov
CHAMAECYTISUS GRANITICUS (REHMANN) ROTHM. (FABACEAE): ASPECTS OF SYSTEMATICS, HOROLOGY AND HABITATS
Current views on the taxonomic position of Chamaecytisus graniticus (Rehmann) Rothm. and Ch. skrobiszewskii (Pacz.) Klaskova (Fabaceae) are considered. Woolly fruit populations of Ch. skrobiszewskii are found to occur in natural steppe coenoses in Ukraine on the limestones and marls where naked fruit populations of Ch. graniticus are absent. In accordance with the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and taking into account amendments made by I.K. Paczosky to the morphological description of Ch. graniticus Rehmann, the species name Ch. graniticus is prioritized. The naked-fruited form described by A. Rehmann is regarded as a variety Ch. graniticus var. gymnocarpus. The complete chorology of Ch. graniticus is provided.
V.I. Melnyk, O.I. Shynder, S.Y. Didenko
NEW LOCATIONS OF RARE SPECIES FOR THE FLORA OF THE DNIEPER UPLAND
New locations of five species rare for the flora of Ukraine, Crocus reticulatus Stev. ex Adams, Listera ovata (L.) R. Br., Stipa capillata L., Arum besserianum Schott, and Corydalis marschalliana (Pall. ex Willd.) Pers., are recorded on the Dnieper Upland. Coenotic conditions of the species habitats in the new localities are described.
O.V. Lobachevska, R.R. Sokhahchak
CAMPYLOPUS INTROFLEXUS (HEDW.) BRID., A NEWALIEN MOSS SPECIES FOR THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
A new alien moss species for the flora of Ukraine, Campylopus introflexus (Hedw.) Brid., was discovered during surveys of the bryoflora in 2009 on the dumps of the Nadiya mine (Sosnivka town) in the Chervonograd coal basin, Lviv Region. Morphological and biological characteristics of the species, its illustrations, short information about its locality in Ukraine, and its distribution in Europe are provided.
E.J. Andrik, L. Balogh, M.V. Shevera
HUMULUS JAPONICUS SIEBOLD. ET ZUCC. (CANNABACEAE) — A NEW ALIEN SPECIES OF UKRAINIAN FLORA
Data on floristic records of Humulus japonicus Siebold. et Zucc. (Сannabaceae), a new alien species of the Ukrainian flora, are reported. Morphological characteristics, chorologic (primary and secondary areas), ecological and coenotic peculiarities of the species are given. Maps of the species distribution in Ukraine (Kyiv, Bila Tserkva (Kiev Reg.), Uzhgorod (Transcarpathia Reg.) are shown.
EPIPHYTIC BRYOPHYTE COMMUNITIES IN THE UKRAINIAN FOREST-STEPPE: ANALYSIS OF THE FLORA AND BRYO-SYNTAXONOMУ
Results of the research on bryophyte communities in the Ukrainian Forest-steppe, including bryo-syntaxonomy, are presented. Species composition, life forms and eco-coenological characteristics of the mosses are analyzed.
DISTRIBUTION OF CETRARIA STEPPAE (SAVICZ) KARNEF. IN THE SOUTH-EAST OF UKRAINE
One of the reasons for decline in abundance of rare and threatened species, including lichens, is uncontrolled pressure on the natural environment. Cetraria steppae (Savicz) Karnef. listed in the «Red Data Book of Ukraine» (2009) is endangered and could become extinct without future management and control of the steppe plots where the species occurs. Distribution of the species and reasons of its abundance decline in the South-East of Ukraine are considered; recommendations for conservation of C. steppae are given.
V.S. Kravets, Ya.S. Kolesnikov, S.V. Kretynin, O.M. Bondarenko, G.A. Romanov
THE ROLE OF CALCIUM IN PHOSPHOLIPASE D REGULATION BY CYTOKININS
In order to study regulation of phospholipase D by cytokinins in cotyledons of Amaranthusseedlings, we applied different modifiers of calcium levels in cells — EGTA, a chelаtor of calcium, or verapamil, a calcium channel inhibitor, in plasma membrane. Cytokinin BAP induces accumulation of the red pigment amaranthin and phospholipase D activation in vivo. Exogeneous application of EGTA and verapamil inhibits the abovementioned cytokinin responses. It is suggested that phospholipase D isoenzymes are involved in biological action of cytokinins in plant cells, and calcium ensures fine-tune regulation of phospholipase D activity.
THE «RED DATA BOOK OF UKRAINE. PLANT KINGDOM». AN AFTERWORD
Results of publication of the third edition of the Red Data Book of Ukraine (2009) are generalized. This edition includes 826 species (611 vascular plants, 46 bryophytes, 60 algae, 52 lichens, and 57 fungi). Approaches to species selection are discussed; a comparative assessment of conservation categories accepted in Ukraine and by MSOP is provided, as well as species distribution according to phytoceonological and political regions. The complete list of vascular plants and their categories is provided.
N.M. Shiyan, S.L. Mosyakin, О.М. Kоrnienko, M.M. Fedoronchuk
TYPIFICATION OF TAXA OF ASTERACEAE IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE: GENERA: ARTEMISIA L., ASTER L., BARKHAUSIA MOENCH., CARDUUS L., CARLINA L.
The list of species of vascular plants of the family Asteraceae (genera Artemisia, Aster, Barkhausia, Carduus, Carlina) described from Ukraine is presented. For each species, the following data are provided: basionym, synonymy, type according to the protologue, nomenclatural type and its location (herbarium).
LOCI CLASSICI OF THE UKRAINIAN FLORA TAXA DESCRIBED FROM THE KYIV AREA, AND THEIR CONSERVATION
The article is devoted to the inventory and critical review of species described from the territory of Kyiv and surrounding area, according to the literature, herbarium data and results of field research of the author. No less than 26 taxa were described from the investigated territory according to the data available. Most of these taxa are now treated as synonyms, while some are considered as intraspecific taxa. Considering modern views in conservation of the biodiversity, we present the legal basis for conservation of loci classici of species described from the Ukrainian territory. Our analysis of the loci classisi of taxa in Kiev area suggests an inexpediency of the new protected areas, since preserved loci classici are located within the core of the Dnipro ecological corridor.
MEAN SIZE OF SPECIES' RANGE AS AN INDEX OF FLORISTIC SINGULARITY OF A COENOSIS AND FLORA
The article describes the most direct method of estimation of originality of species composition of plant communities and floras. Evaluation of proportional means of species ranges for different plant communities of different regions of Ukraine has been performed. The weighed value of species was proportional to the constancy of these species. It is shown that small values (3–6 million km2) are characteristic of vegetation of broadleaved forests, steppes, outcrops, and calciphilous pine forests. The maximal values (15–18 million km2) are peculiar to synanthropic vegetation and mires. Meadows and acidophilous forests have intermediate levels of the proposed index. In forests of the Crimean Mountains, means of species area are 2–3 times lower (1.3–2.3 million km2) than in forests of the same orders in flatland areas. Carpathian forests have intermediate values of this index. In this region, it is higher at higher altitudes. Another index is the arithmetic mean of reciprocals of the species area size. It is more sensitive to the presence of species with small areas.
V.V. Protopopova, M.V. Shevera, I.M. Anishchenko, N.G. Terentyeva
ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES COMPOSITION OF KENOPHYTES IN URBAN FLORAS OF DIFFERENT PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL ZONES OF UKRAINE USING MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS METHODS
Results of comparative analysis of species compositions of kenophytes in urban floras of different phytogeographical zones of Ukraine (Uzhgorod, Kamenets-Podolsky, Kyiv, Kryvyi Rig, Chernigov, Lugansk, Donetsk, Mykolayiv, Mariupol) using cluster and correspondence analyses are reported. Kenophytes in urban floras of 9 cities of Ukraine were analyzed by their species composition, geographical origin, and degree of naturalization. Similarity dendrograms demonstrated that kenophyte species lists of the largest (in terms of its area) city, Kyiv (Kiev), are distinctly isolated from similar group in floras of other studied cities. Kenophyte floras of industrial cities of the eastern and central parts of Ukraine formed one cluster, and those of cities of the western region of the country formed another separate cluster.
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENUS VERBASCUM L. (SCROPHULARIACEAE S. STR.) IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
Pollen morphology of 17 species of the genus Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae s. str.) was examined using the light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of 14 species are described in detail for the first time. Pollen grains of Verbascum are 3-colporate, prolate, spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, medium-sized. Pollen grains are characterized by the common sculpture type, which is reticulate. Palynomorphological data are analyzed on the background of the system of Verbascum. Characters of surface sculpture and peculiarities of aperture structure are diagnostic on the sectional level.
NEW PALYNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HOLOCENE DEPOSITS OF THE SECTION TROIZKOYE II (MYKOLAYIV REGION, UKRAINE)
New detailed palynological and radiochronological characteristics of the Holocene deposits of the section Troizkoye-II (Right-bank Steppe zone of Ukraine) are presented. The investigated organogenic deposits were formed at the beginning of the Middle Holocene (AT — 1). The list of the collective fossil flora of the deposits from the Troizkoye-II mire consists of 115 taxa identified with the precision to different taxonomic ranks (4 orders, 47 families, 37 genera, and 67 species). Pollen of Fagus sylvatica, Picea sp., Abies sp. took part in the formation of fossil spore-pollen spectra (secondary deposition of pollen grains). These tree species were not present in the forest vegetation of the investigated area in the Holocene. Results of palynological and radiochronological investigations did not confirm Neishtadt’s statement about the southern migration route of Fagus in the Ukrainian territory in the Holocene. Earliest evidence of human activity is recorded in the second half of the Middle Holocene (AT-3) by new results of integral palynological and radiocarbon studies of deposits from Troizkoye-II.
EX SITU CONSERVATION OF RARE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES OF THE UKRAINIAN FLORA IN THE CONTEXT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GLOBAL AND EUROPEAN STRATEGIES FOR PLANT CONSERVATION
The modern state and perspectives of ex situ conservation of rare and endangered species of the Ukrainian flora in the context of implementation of the Global and the European Strategies for Plant Conservation are considered. The representation of rare plant species in collections of 13 botanical gardens and arboreta of Ukraine is analyzed. Several actions for improving the overall performance of botanical gardens in plant conservation are proposed; including the idea of establishment of a new botanical garden in the high–mountain zone of the Carpathians.
V.V. Dzhagan, M.P. Prydiuk, O.O. Senchylo
NEW RECORDS OF MACROMYCETES LISTED IN THE RED DATA BOOK OF UKRAINE
New records for the following 10 species of macromycetes listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine are reported: Anthurus archeri (Berk.) Fischer, Catathelasma imperiale (Fr.) Singer, Grifola frondosa (Dicks.: Fr.) Gray, Gyromitra slonevskii Heluta, Leucocortinarius bulbiger (Alb. et Schwein.: Fr.) Singer, Morchella steppicola Zerova, Mutinus caninus (Huds. ex Pers.) Fr., Polyporus umbellatus (Pers.) Fr., Sparassis crispa (Wulfen.) Fr., and Strobilomyces strobilaceus (Scop.) Berk.
O.M. Vinogradova, T.I. Mikhailiuk
NEW AND NOTEWORTHY RECORDS OF ALGAE FROM THE CAVES AND GROTTOES OF THE NATIONAL NATURE PARK «PODILSKY TOVTRY» (UKRAINE)
Paper deals with the data on new for Ukrainian flora and noteworthy records of algae revealed in caves and grottoes of the National Nature Park «Podilsky Tovtry»: Gloeothece cf. cyanochroa Komarek, Gloeocapsa coracina Kutzing, Cyanosarcina parthenonensis Anagnostidis, Leptolyngbya hansgirgiana Komarek, L. schmidlei (Limanowska) Anagnostidis et Komarek, Phormidium vulgare[Kutzing] ex Anagnostidis, Pseudodictyochloris dissecta Vinatzer, Scotiella tuberculata Bourelly, Fottea stichococcoides Hindak, Stichococcus undulatus Vinatzer, Klebsormidium sp. Their descriptions, illustrations, data on ecological peculiarities, distribution in Ukraine and general distribution are given.
K.G. Savchenko, V.P. Heluta, O.Yu. Umanets
SPORISORIUM CENCHRI (LAGERH.) VБNKY, A NEW SPECIES OF SMUT FUNGI (USTILAGINOMYCETES) FOR UKRAINE
Sporisorium cenchri (Lagerh.) Vбnky (Ustilaginales, Ustilaginomycetes) on Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fernald (Poaceae) is reported for the first time from Ukraine as well as from Eastern Europe. The species is described and illustrated. Sporisorium cenchri is a fungus parasitizing various hosts belonging to Cenchrus L. It is known from Europe, Africa, Asia, and North and South America.
D.V. Leontyev, I.O. Dudka, A.V. Kochergina, T.I. Krivomaz
MYXOMYCOTA OF THE NATIONAL NATURE PARK «SYNEVYR»
Species composition, taxonomic structure and substrate ecology of Myxomycota in the Synevyr National Nature Park (Ukrainian Carpathians) were studied. Within the area of the park, 49 species (54 infraspecific taxa) of Myxomycota from 21 genera, 8 families and 5 orders were found. Among forest myxomycetes, the most abundant were species of the genera Arcyria, Stemonitis, Physarum and Trichia, among nivicolous ones, Diderma and Lepidoderma. Eight species are new records for the Carpathian Forests zone. Two species, Lamproderma spinulosporum and Stemonitopsis microspora, are found for the first time in Ukraine. Descriptions, locations and substrate data for these species are provided.
LIGNIN FORMATION AND ACTIVITY OF THE NONSPECIFIC PEROXIDASE INLEAVES OF SIUM LATIFOLIUM L. GROWING UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF WATER SUPPLY
The influence of natural moderate water deficiency on the lignin synthesis in leaves of air-aquatic Sium latifolium L. was investigated. Material for research was collected at the phases of budding (June) and blooming-fruiting (August). The decrease of lignin content was revealed at the phase of blooming-fruiting in the plants of both ecotypes. It is obvious that hydrolysis of this polymer at the late phases of plant development does not depend on the water status but could be explained by the ageing of cells. The obtained results indicate that lignin of cell walls is a labile polymer which synthesis is directly bound to the plant water status. It is shown that the change of nonspecific peroxidase activity and lignin content in air-aquatic and terrestrial S. latifolium leaves correlate with the stage of plant ontogenesis.
T.M. Cherevchenko, L.I. Buyun, L.А. Kovalska
POLLINATION STRATEGIES IN ORCHIDS (ORCHIDACEAE JUSS.)
The article provides an overview of recent publications on pollination biology in orchids. Representatives of Orchidaceae have extraordinary specialized pollination strategies. This specialization is directed toward maximum efficiency of pollination; however, orchid reproduction in the wild is strongly limited by availability of pollinators. The floral traits of entomophilous (mellittophilous, myophilous, cantharophilous, sphyngophilous/psychophilous) as well as ornithophilous orchid species are highlighted. The data available on pollination strategies of orchids (floral features, availability/absence of reward, behavioral patterns of pollinators, reproductive success) are important for developing effective propagation methods, particularly, for obtaining viable seeds.
A.R. Nikiforov, B.B. Korzenevsky
BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES AND STRUCTURE OF PLANT ZINGERIA BIEBERSTEINIANA (POACEAE)
Species Zingeria biebersteiniana (Claus) P. Smirn. (Poaceae) has polydisjunctive areal which includes the landscapes of lakes, rivers and other pools drying in summer in southern dry steppe on the territory of Priazovye and Steppe Crimea. The plant belongs to winter annuals, summer flowering ephemers. Morphological structure of plant consists of main and side shoots. The main shoot of Z. biebersteiniana consists of structural and functional zones: regeneration, inhibition, enrichment. Synflorescence of Z. biebersteiniana belongs to synflorescense of politely type.
M.M. Peregrym, A.A. Kuzemko
A NEW INTERGENERIC HYBRID IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE × DACTYLOCAMPTIS UECHTRITZIANA (HAUSSKN.) M. PEREGRYM ET KUZEMKO, COMB. NOV. (ORCHIDACEAE JUSS.)
The first record in the flora of Ukraine of the hybrid genus × Orchidactyla P.F. Hunt & Summerhayes (Dactylorhiza Neck. ex Nevski × Orchis L.) from Orchidaceae Juss., × Orchidactyla uechtritziana (Hausskn.) Borsos et Soó
(Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) Soó × Orchis palustris Jacq.), is reported. Based on research data of R.M. Bateman, A.M. Pridgeon, M.W. Chase (1997) a new nomenclatural combination for the species is proposed: × Dactylocamptis uechtritziana (Hausskn.) M. Peregrym et Kuzemko, comb. nov. (Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) Soó × Anacamptis palustris (Jacq.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon et M.W. Chase). The species is therefore placed in × Dactylocamptis P.F. Hunt & Summerhayes (Dactylorhiza × Anacamptis Rich.). Ecological and coenotic peculiarities of the species habitat and morphological characters are also described.
V.I. Melnik, S.O. Glinska, L.A. Savchuk
NEW INFORMATION ABOUT GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION, HABITATS AND THE MODERN STATE OF POPULATIONS OF EUPHORBIA VOLHYNICA BESS. EX RACIB.
New localities of Euphorbia volhynica (Euphorbiaceae), a rare relict endemic species of the Eastern European plain flora in the Kremenetsky Mountains (landscape unit Vacanzy near Vilia village, Szumswki District, Ternopil Region) and in Male Polisia (in Oleksuky preserve, Kremenetski District, Ternopil Region) are discovered. Geographical distribution, habitats and the modern state of population of Euphorbia volhynica are described. Recommendations for establishment of a botanical preserve (zakaznik) for protection of Euphorbia volhynica in the Kremenetsky Mountains are proposed.
Ya.P. Didukh, O.L. Kuzmanenko
ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS: «HABITAT», «BIOTOPE», AND «ECOTOPE»
The relationships between the concepts of habitat, biotope and ecotope are considered. «Habitat» is defined as a place where an organism, species or community lives. In the last case «habitat» coincides with «biotope», which is the territory with homogeneous environmental conditions inhabited by a plant community with appropriate blocks of consumers and reducers (decomposers). «Ecotope» is defined as an ecosystem of some territorial level, the type of environment. An ecotope subject to principal component could be a biotope, a lithotope, a hydrotope, or a technotope. The ecotopes’ sizes and principles of their generalization are discussed.
N.M. Shyіan, О.М. Оptasyuk, L.V. Zavialova
THE J.E. GILIBERT’S COLLECTION IN THE HERBARIUM KW
The herbarium of J.E. Gilibert is the oldest among memorial collections of the Herbarium KW. It contains important materials that are of great historical and scientific value and are of interest at the researchers from France, Lithuania, Belarus, Poland and Ukraine. For a long time the collection had no detailed quantitative data, because only its systematical part had a catalogue. Withing the inventory of the KW funds the Herbarium of J.E. Gilibert was inventoried and the work on creation of it's catalogue was started. There are two parts the Herbarium of J.E. Gilibert in the Herbarium KW: the systematic herbarium or "Herbarium Linneanum" and floristic herbarium. The latter consists of plants collected in botanical gardens of Grodno (Belarus) and Vilnius (Lithuania) and indigenous flora. In total the collection of J.E. Gilibert in the Herbarium KW contains 6341 specimens. There are 4429 specimens (29 leather covered boxes) in the systematical part and 1912 specimens (12 folders) in the floristic part of the collection.
L.M. Borsukevych, К.N. Danylyuk
NEW FINDS OF GLYCERIA DECLINATA BREB. (POACEAE) IN THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS
First records of Glyceria declinata Breb. in Ukraine are dated by the middle of ХIХ, century, and the species has not been recorded since then. Eight new localities were found in the Ukrainian Carpatians in the summer of 2009. The morphological description, geographic distribution, phytocoenotic and ecological characteristics of the species are given.
A.V. Yena, P.Ye. Yevseyenkov
BETA VULGARIS L. SUBSP. MARITIMA (L.) ARCANG. (CHENOPODIACEAE) — A NEW TAXON IN CRIMEAN FLORA
Betavulgaris subsp. maritima was found within Sebastopol city for the first time in Crimea. Morphology, ecology, geography, conservation and use of the taxon are discussed.
O.I. Shynder, E.V. Kozyr
NEW LOCATIONS OF RARE SPECIES OF THE SOUTH DNIEPER UPLAND FLORA IN THE NETEKA RIVER VALLEY AND THE STATUS OF THEIR POPULATIONS
As a result of floristic surveys in Kirovograd Region, new localities of rare species listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine — Iris pontica and Pulsatilla pratensis were found, as well as a number of regionally rare species. Coenitical conditions and the population status of Irispontica, Leopoldia tenuiflora, Muscari neglectum,Ornithogalum kochii and Pulsatilla pratensis are described.
I.О. Dudka, M.O. Zykova
FIRST RECORDS OF DISCOMYCETES FROM THE DANUBE BIOSPHERE RESERVE
During a mycological expedition to Danube Biosphere Reserve in October 2009, 16 species of discomycetes from the classes Leotiomycetes, Lecarnoromycetes and Orbiliomycetes were recorded in different types of vegetation. The highest species diversity was observed in the order Helotiales (13) and in the genus Hymenoscyphus Gray (4). Brief descriptions and drawings of Rutstroemia lindaviana (Kirschst.) Dennis, Perrotia distincta (Peck) J.H. Haines, and Cryptodiscus tabularum Kirschst., new species for Ukraine, are given.
K.G. Savchenko, V.P. Heluta
MELANOTAENIUM CINGENS (BECK) MAGNUS (MELANOTAENIACEAE, USTILAGINALES), A NEW SPECIES IN UKRAINE
A smut fungus Melanotaenium cingens (Back) Magnus (Melanotaeniaceae, Ustilaginales) parasitizing Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill. (Plantaginaceae s. l.) was found in Chornomorsky (Black Sea) Biosphere Reserve of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Tendra Island, Kherson Region) in 2007. This is the first record of the fungus in Ukraine. The species description and illustrations are provided.
O.V. Ordynets, E.O. Yurchenko
NEW AND LITTLE KNOWN IN UKRAINE SPECIES OF CORTICIOID FUNGI
Eight species of corticioid fungi found in 2007 and 2009 on the territory of «Sviati Hory» National Nature Park (Donetsk Region) are considered. Three of them, Hypochniciellum ovoideum (Julich) Hjortstam et Ryvarden, Trechispora alnicola (Bourdot et Galzin) Liberta and T. stevensonii (Berk. et Broome) K.H. Larss., are new records for Ukraine. Other five species are first reported for the Left-bank area as well as for the plain area of Ukraine. For all the species, descriptions of the specimens studied and their illustrations are provided. Information on ecology, distribution and rarity of these species worldwide is also discussed.
I.V. Makogon, I.I. Korshikov
POLLEN QUALITY AND SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF PICEAPUNGENS ENGELM. IN A ZONE OF EMISSIONS OF METALLURGICAL ENTERRISES OF DONBASS
Results of research on fertility, viability, variability of morphometric parameters of pollen, and its anomalies, potential and actual seed productivity of separate plants of Picea pungens Engelm. in a zone of emissions of two metallurgical enterprises (smelters) of Donbass are presented. The parameters describing pollen and seed productivity of these plants and control (Donetsk Botanical Garden) varied during years of the study; however, in most cases, these parameters essentially did not differ depending on a place of growth.
EVALUATION OF TAXONOMIC AND PHYLOGENETIC SIGNIFICANCE OF MICROMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS BASED ON DATA OF THE COMPARATIVE EMBRYOLOGICAL METHOD
The article provides an overview of methodic approaches to assessing the taxonomic and phylogenetic value of micromorphological characters, mainly data of the comparative embryological method, and their significance for taxonomy of angiosperms. The methodology of cladistics is briefly considered. The need of using data of different methods to study the evolutionary history of the plant kingdom and evolutionary pathways and relations of various taxa is emphasized.
S.L. Mosyakin, O.V. Tyshchenko
A PRAGMATIC PHYLOGENETIC CLASSIFICATION OF VASCULAR CRYPTOGAMIC PLANTS OF THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
A variant of a pragmatic classification scheme is proposed for vascular crypytogamic plants of the flora of Ukraine. The scheme includes 4 divisions (Lycopodiophyta, Psilotophyta, Equisetophyta, Polypodiophyta), 5 classes (Lycopodiopsida, Isoetopsida, Ophioglossopsida, Equisetopsida, Polypodiopsida), 7 orders and 19 families. For each family, genera occurring in Ukraine are listed, with the number of species indicated for each genus. The clasification scheme is bases on modern interpretation of morphological and molecular phylogenetic data on vascular cryptogamic plants, takes into consideration traditions of Ukrainian and Russian taxonomic schools, and includes some adjustments of positions and circumscriptions of some taxa. This classification is proposed to be used in the new edition of the Flora of Ukraine, as well as in new Ukrainian manuals and reference books.
N.M. Shiyan, S.L. Mosyakin, M.M. Fedoronchuk
TYPIFICATION OF TAXA OF ASTERACEAE IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE: GENERA CENTAUREA L.
The list of species of vascular plants of the Asteraceae family (gen. Centaurea L.) described from Ukraine is presented. For each species the following data are provided: basyonim, synonymy, protologue, nomenclatural type and its location.
TYPES AND CAUSES OF RARITY: A CASE STUDY OF PLANT SPECIES OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS
A review of various aspects of the problem of rarity applied to rare species of vascular plants in the Ukrainian Carpathians is presented. Forms (according to D.S. Rabinowitz, 1981) and types of species rarity referring to the area of their distribution, ecological requirements and population numbers, as well as natural and anthropogenic causes, are discussed. The threat of extinction of some rare species in abandoned semi-natural post-forest grassland communities due to their vast overgrowth with shrubby and woody vegetation is pointed out. Relationship between the species rarity and their biological characteristics is analyzed.
О.М. Optasyuk, L.G. Lyubinska
NEW DATA ON DISTRIBUTION OF LINUM BASARABICUM (SAVUL. ET RAYSS) KLOKOV EX JUZ. (LINACEAE) ON THE TERRITORY OF KHMELNYTSKY REGION
New data about the distribution of L. basarabicum (Savul. et Rayss) Klokov ex Juz. (Linaceae) in Khmelnytsky region (National Nature Park Podilsky Tovtry, compartment № 18) and participation in phytocoenosis are presented.
V.V. Protopopova, M.V. Shevera, I.I. Chorney, A.I. Tokaryuk, V.V. Budzhak, K.V. Korzhan
THE TRANSFORMER-SPECIES IN THE FLORA OF THE BUKOBYNA CIS-CARPATHIAN
Results of investigation of the participation and role of transformer or «key-stone» species in floristic complexes and plant communities of the Bukovyna Cіs-Carpathian Region (Chernivtsi Reg., Ukraine) are presented. Six species of transformers are identified and characterized (Acernegundo L., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Impatiens parviflora DC., Phalacroloma annuum (L.) Dumort., Rudbeckia laciniata L., Solidago Canadensis L.).
Assessments of invasibility of plant communities (corresponding to syntaxa of various ranks) and florocomplexes have been made as well.
The regional peculiarities of species of this group are revealed: all species.
NEW ASSOCIATIONS AND SUBASSOCIATIONS OF MOSS VEGETATIONS OF THE UKRAINIAN FOREST-STEPPE
Characteristics are provided for new moss associations, Orthodicrano montani-Hypnetum reptilis ass. nova, Ptilidio pulcherrimi-Hypnetum reptilis ass. nova, Plagiomnietum undulati ass. nova, and subassociations: Pleurozietum schreberi Wisn. 1930: dicranetetosum polyseti subass. nova and clavulinietosum rugosi subass. nova. These syntaxa were found in the territory of the Ukrainian Forest-Steppe.
S.M. Panchenko, V.M. Kondratenko
THE POPULATION STRUCTURE OF CORYDALIS CAVA AND C. SOLIDA (FUMARIACEAE) IN THE FORESTS OF THE DESNIANSKO-STAROGUTSKY NATIONAL NATURE PARK
Corydalis cava and C. solida are rare species in the Desniansko-Starogutsky National Nature Park. Their typical habitats, broadleaf forests, were destroyed before the creation of the national nature park. The spatial, ontogenetic and vitality structures of coenotic populations of C. cava and C. solida were determined. The distribution patterns of plants are less regular in the mixed forests, pine forests with Corylus avellana, at forest edges, and on felled areas.
In the populations with the optimal vitality structure, there are lower shares of seedling, virginile and reproductive plants in an ontogenetic structure. Corydalis cava is dominant in synusia of spring ephemeroids in the broadleaf and birch forests. C. solida has a wider ecological amplitude; however, in spring synusia it is a co-dominant, together with Anemone ranunculoides. C. solida is more frequent at the forest edges, where it has the optimal vitality structure.
Renewal of populations of C. cava can be the most effective in the moist birch forests, on felled areas with prevailing broadleaf trees. Optimum conditions for C. solida are in a birch and aspen forests with Corylus avellana. This species occurs at the forest edges, along clearing and roads among pine stands with C. avellana.
I.V. Zmitrovich, V.F. Malysheva, E.F. Malysheva
ON THE WAYS OF MORPHOGENY OF HYPHAL ELEMENTS IN POLYPOROID AND PLEUROTOID FUNGI
Morphogeny in polyporoid and pleurotoid fungi is discussed. The Redhead’s thesis about relic nature of sclerohyphae in agaricoid fungi and Corner’s «Hericium-hypothesis» of the origin of trametoids are both rejected. A transformation range from thin-walled physalohyphae via meripiloid irregularly swelled hyphae to corioloid uninflated fibre-like hyphal elements is demonstrated.
O.Yu. Akulov, V.V. Dzhagan, O.O. Senchylo, M.M. Sukhomlin
THE FIRST FIND OF LAETISARIA FUCIFORMIS (McALPINE) BURDS. (CORTICIACEAE) IN UKRAINE
Data on finding of a fungus species new for Ukraine, Laetisaria fuciformis (McAlpine) Burds. (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycota) are provided. Main diagnostic characters of this fungus are characterized.
FUNGI OF THE GENUS MELAMPSORA CAST. IN UKRAINE
14 species of the genus Melampsora are known for Ukraine. Of them, 9 species are heteroaecial with telial stage on Salix and Populus, 1 is autoaecial parasite of Salix and 4 are autoaecial on hosts of the genera Euphorbia, Trachomitum, Linum and Hypericum. Parasites with telial stage on representatives of the family Salicaceae are specialized to intrageneric taxa of their host plants. M. allii-fragilis, M. laricis-pentandrae, M. amygdalinae and M. salicis-albae occur on species of the subgenus Salix; M. caprearum, M. epitea and M. ribesii-viminalis — on willows of the subgenus Vetrix; M. populnea is specialized to section Populus; Melampsoraallii-populina and M. laricis-populina parasitize poplars of the sections Aigeiros and Tacamahaca. A key for identification of Ukrainian species of the genus Melampsora is provided.
K.G. Savchenko, O.O. Dzyunenko, V.P. Heluta
MELANUSTILOSPORA ARI (COOKE) DENCHEV ON ARUM L. IN UKRAINE
New Ukrainian records of a smut fungus Melanustilospora ari (Cooke) Denchev on Arum besserianum Schott and A. elongatum Steven (Araceae) are reported. The fungus on A. elongatum was collected on this host for the second time in the world. Data on distribution of M. ari in Ukraine is analyzed; the description and morphological peculiarities of the fungus are given.
I.I. Korshikov, O.V. Krasnoshtan
PECULIARITIES OF GENETIC STRUCTURE OF THE LOCAL POPULATION OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. ON THE IRON-ORE DUMPS OF KRIVOY ROG AREA
Analysis of genetic diversity by 19 allozyme loci of local population of Pinus sylvestris L., which is spontaneously forming on the iron-ore dumps of Krivoy Rog area due to introduction of seeds, has been carried out. It was ascertained that this population has balanced genetic structure and slightly differs from the geographically distant natural steppe populations of P. sylvestris by the level of genetic diversity and differentiation.
O.V. Chemeris, K.G. Dreval, M.I. Boyko
THE ACTIVITY OF OXIDATIVE AND CELLULOLYTIC ENZYMES AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF HETEROBASIDION ANNOSUM (FR.) BREF. STRAINS (BASIDIOMYCOTA)
Enzyme activity of some strains of wood-destroying fungus Heterobasidion annosum was researched. The culture mediums of different strains of H. annosum show reliable differences in the activity of oxidative enzymes — catalase and peroxidase. A difference between cellulases of different strains was established. Strains of H. annosum are able to change composition of cellulolytic enzymes during the process of cultivation.