Yu.A. Podunay, O.I. Davidovich, N.A. Davidovich
MATING SYSTEM AND TWO TYPES OF GAMETOGENESIS IN THE FRESH WATER DIATOM ULNARIA ULNA (BACILLARIOPHYTA)
Sexual reproduction and mating system of the freshwater diatom Ulnaria ulna (Nitzsch) Compère were studied by using clonal cultures. Mating system of the species involves homo- and heterothallic modes of reproduction; and both male and female clones were capable of homothallic reproduction. Two types of gametogenesis corresponding to two mating types were investigated. Analysis of the crossing table, gamete morphology, and sex distribution in the progeny resulted from intraclonal reproduction provided evidences that anisogamy and two mating types were determined in U. ulna genetically; male and female clones were hetero- and homogametic correspondently. Specific active movement of male gametes caused by the formation and retraction of pseudopodia-like structures on the gamete surface was described. The absence of reproductive isolation between clones gathered from geographically distant populations suggests continuity and broad distribution of the species.
THE FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF FUCOXANTHIN AND PHYTOHORMONES FROM THE BROWN SEAWEEDS
The literature and original data on the content of fucoxanthin and phytohormones in marine brown algae are summarized. The biological activity of fucoxanthin, including its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic and other properties are examined. The brown seaweeds genus Cystoseira C. Agardh, distributed in the Black Sea, are good source for the production of biologically active substances, including fucoxanthin and phytohormones.
PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MICROALGAE PORPHYRIDIUM PURPUREUM (BORY) ROSS. UNDER BATCH AND SEMICONTINUOUS CULTIVATION
It is shown that cultivation of Porphyridium purpureum using semicontinuous method for optimal selection of key parameters allows to obtain stably high productivity of this species both by biomass, and by its a valuable components in comparison with other modes. Production characteristics of semicontinuous culture P. purpureum has been defined. Productivity of P. purpureum increases with the growth of specific flow rate of the medium. The highest productivity of biomass and pigments is realized in the range of flow rate of the medium 0.3–0.4 day-1, and reaches: of biomass – 0.5 g AFDW·l-1·day-1 and of B-phycoerythrin – 40 mg·l-1·day-1. The type of change of the pigments content P. purpureum has been determined under semicontinuous cultivation; the possibility of regulation of pigments content with the help of varying the specific flow rate has been shown. The relative content of pigments in the biomass of P. purpureum in the range of specific flow rate of the medium 0.1–0.4 day-1 increases by 50 %. The maximum pigment content in the biomass of P. purpureum is noted at the specific flow rate 0.3–0.4 day-1. Productivity of semicontinuous culture P. purpureum by biomass and pigments is 1.5–3 times higher than its productivity by batch cultivation, which is confirmed by experimental data.
TAXONOMIC DIVERSITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF BENTHIC DIATOMS AT BALAKLAVA BAY (SOUTH-WESTERN CRIMEA, THE BLACK SEA, UKRAINE)
At heavy polluted Balaklava Bay (Southwestern Crimea, the Black Sea) and on reference site the 17 stations on soft bottom in depths range 6–23 m in September 2006 were fullfilled. Total 278 sp ecies and infraspecies taxa of benthic diatoms w ere found, among them 40 species were found as newly for the Black Sea flora. The most representative genera were Nitzschia (32 sp. & ssp.), Amphora (31), Navicula (27), Cocconeis (21), Lyrella (14) and Diploneis (13). Based on abundance calculation results and using cluster and MDS analysis, 2 groups of stations were distinguished (I group is at the most polluted internal part of the bay, II one – an external part). The diatom taxocenotic complex with the certain structure was formed within each of the group and characterized by well-defined taxonomic structure. Diversity of diatom taxocen was estimated using of flora ratio, Shannon, Piеlow, Simpson, Margalef indices. The indices of taxonomic distinctness AvTaxD (Δ+) and VarTD (Λ+) also were calculated for every investigated station. The greatest values Δ+ was noted at internal part of the bay that is caused by presence in taxocen structure the considerable share of mono- and oligo-species branches. In less polluted external part of the bay values Δ+ are close to the expected mode, corresponding to structure of whole Black Sea benthic diatoms inventory that means prevailing of oligo-specific branches. At reference site the value Δ+ is minimum that is caused by domination of polyspecies branches in a hierarchical tree of taxocen.
SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SAPROBE INDICATORS ALGAE IN UNDERCURRENT OF ZERAVSHAN RIVER (REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN)
The algae flora of undercurrent Zeravshan River was studed. Two hundred seventy-four species were found (i.e. 191 species, 75 variations, 8 forms), 76 species of them are water quality indicators. Seasonal changes and distribution of algae recorded in undercurrent of river. Saprobic-indicators algae and sanitary quality of water are revealed.
MACROPHYTOBENTHOS AT THE COASTS OF OSOVINSKAYA STEPPE (AZOV SEA – KERCH STRAIT, UKRAINE)
Data about space allocation, qualitative and quantitative composition of the phytobenthos at the coasts of Osovinskaya Steppe. It has been registrated 37 macrophytes species (Magnoliophyta – 2, Chlorophyta – 17, Phaeophyta – 5, Rhodophyta – 13) including 10 rare taxons which have been put in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Appendix I), The Red Book of Ukraine, Black Sea Red Data Book and Black Sea Red Data List. Species Sahlingia subintegra (Rosenv.) Kornmann, Hildenbrandia rubra (Sommerf.) Menegh. and Percursaria percursa (C. Agardh) Rosenv. have been noted from the Azov Sea in the first time. Macrophytobenthos has been localized along the shallow bays’ abrasive-accumulated shores of the rocky complexes near the capes Tarkhan and the Khrony. On the hard substrates in the pseudolittoral zone of the region associations of Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Agardh [Ulva linza L.] and Ceramium elegans Ducluz. [C. siliquosum (Kütz.) Maggs et Hommers. var. elegans(Roth) G. Furnari] predominate, in the sublittoral zone on the shoal associations of Cladophora sericea (Huds.) Kütz. + Chaetomorpha linum (O.F. Müll.) Kütz. – Ceramium elegans Ducluz. [C. siliquosum (Kütz.) Maggs et Hommers. var.elegans (Roth) G. Furnari] predominate, in the deeper places associations of Cystoseira barbata (Gooden. et Woodw.) C. Agardh – Polysiphonia opaca (C. Agardh) Zanardini + Ceramium elegans [C. siliquosum (Kütz.) Maggs et Hommers. var. elegans (Roth) G. Furnari] (western part of the region) and Cystoseira barbata (Gooden. et Woodw.) C. Agardh – Polysiphonia nigrescens (Dillwyn) Grev. [P. fucoides (Huds.) Grev.] + Ceramium elegans [C. siliquosum (Kütz.) Maggs et Hommers. var. elegans (Roth) G. Furnari] (eastern part) predominate. In the mostly protected places on the soft substrates associations of Zostera marina L. and Z. marina + Z. noltii Hornem. have been noted. Tops and central parts of the Reef Bay, Bulganak Bay and Borzovskaja Bay don’t have permanent vegetat ive cover because of the intensive movement of substrate. Coastal biotopes are under the preservation according to the EU’s Habitats Directive (92/43 EEC: codes 1160 and 1170). Recommendations for the nature usage optimizations have been given.
DETALIZATION OF THE PLIOCENE – QUATERNARY NORTH PACIFIC DIATOMZONAL SCALE
A high-resolution diatom zonal scale has been developed under the stratigraphic diatom distribution in the Pliocene and Quaternary North Pacific deposits. The levels of the first evolutionary appearance or extinction of some diatom species are the base to establish zonal boundaries. Proposed diatom zones are tracked in different facies of the North Pacific, mainly in subarctic latitudes. The analysis of the diatom appearance and disappearance at the boundaries in the deposits of different biogeographic zones shows a space-temporal shift of these boundaries forced by the rates of the changes of paleopopulations densities and distribution areas during them expansion and degradation. This specification should be taking into account to provide the correlation between different biogeographic regions with specific features of the surface water masses.
M.S. Kulikovskiy, I.V. Kuznetsova
BIOGEOGRAPHY OF BACILLARIOPHYTA. MAIN CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES
History of understanding biogeography and distribution of diatoms is shown. One of prevail concept was idea about cosmopolitan distribution of diatoms. Approach described by sentence “everything is everywhere, the environment selects” is discussed. Ideas about local distribution of many taxa are given. Local distribution of many taxa is supported by modern ideas about species concept in diatoms and presence of cryptic and pseudocryptic diversity. New data about allopatric and sympatric speciation in diatoms and others protists are discussed. Presence of species flocks in ancient basins, flagship taxa, hotspots and dark diversity are discussed and shown on own data. Concept of endemic areas is discussed.
FUNCTIONAL HETEROGENEITY OF MICROALGAL CELLS DESMODESMUS COMMUNIS (E. HEGEW.) E. HEGEW. (CHLOROPHYTA) UNDER NORMAL AND TOXIC EXPOSURE
The functional heterogeneity of microalgal cells (Desmodesmus communis (= Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Brèb.) was studied at different stages of development under normal and toxic exposure using the method of microcultures that enables to check development of single cells in small volume within 80 hours with a daily view of the state and the number of cells. The method allows to estimate the ratio of dividing, dormant and dead cells under normal and toxic exposure. Toxicants (CuCl2, AgNO3, colloidal silver) at different concentrations were added directly to makroсulturе at different stages of its development: the lag-, logarithmic and stationary growth phases. The proportion of dormant cells in normal makroculture was elevated in the lag phase at the beginning of the development of culture and the stationary phase, while the proportion of dying cells remained more or less constant. The number of dormant cells during growth of the culture varied depending on the toxicant, and the phase of the development of culture. After long periods of repeated intoxication in an increasingly toxic load and subsequent reinoculation of culture in a clean media, the ratio of dividing, dormant and dead cells over time was close to what took place after the initial intoxication. Inhibition of cell division is one of the main factors of toxicity, which depends on the physiological state of the culture and the level of toxicity. The rate of cell division at different stages of culture may be increased at low levels of the toxic exposure.
ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DATA ON CYANOPROKARYOTA (CYANOPHYTA) OF CONTINENTAL WATER BODIES OF UKRAINE
The results of analysis of original, literary, and historical data (1971–2010) on the ecology and geographical distribution of 149 species of Cyanoprokaryota (Cyanophyta) of continental water bodies of Ukraine. For each species (data if they are available) are given on its frequently quotients and abundance as well as ecological parameters of the habitat: water bodies, temperature, salinity, pH and index of saprobity, etc. Autecological features of the species are described.
HORIZONTAL CHANGES IN PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES OF THE PAVLOVSKOE RESERVOIR (REPUBLIC BASHKORTOSTAN, RUSSIA)
We used some of the approaches of ecological-floristic classification for the identification of indicator species. The indicator species are used then to assess the environmental conditions in Pavlovskoe Reservoir. 155 species and intraspecific taxa of Algae and Cyanoprokaryotes from 90 genera, 50 families, 25 orders, 10 classes and 7 divisions had been determined by the authors during the research in 2003, 2008 and 2009 years. Allocated species, which are widespread throughout the territory of the reservoir – Chlorella vulgaris and Aphanocapsa inserta, and species typical for different sites. Also it was differentiated 4 autotrophic plankton community, with two versions of one of them. The composition of communities reflects the changes in the degree of eutrophication of the reservoir.
BACILLARIOPHYTA IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS OF ARCTIC TUNDRA OF WESTERN YAMAL (HKARASAVEIYAKHA RIVER BASIN, RUSSIA)
The first scanning electron microscopy study of algal flora (Bacillariophyta) of water bodies and water courses of the Hkarasaveiyakha River basin has revealed 214 taxa of diatom algae from 50 genera including 126 taxa new for the flora of Yamal Peninsular and 19 taxa new for the flora of Russia. The highest number of species has been recorded in genera Eunotia (16), Nitzschia (17), Pinnularia (30), Navicula (35).
CYANOPROKARYOTA IN PLANKTON OF THE RIVERS AND LAKES OF OMSK PRIIRTYSHYE (RUSSIA)
Data about species composition, distribution and abundance of Cyanoprokaryota in plankton of rivers and lakes of the middle portion of Irtysh River (Omsk Priirtyshye) are presented. A brief floristic analysis and ecological and geographical characteristics of the found species are given. In water bodies of Omsk Priirtyshye сyanoprokaryotes have high species diversity and abundance. In summer-autumn period water blooms caused by cyanoprocaryotes including toxic species were recorded in many reservoirs.
PEPONIA FENNERIAE SP. NOV. (BACILLARIOPHYTA) FROM MIDDLE EOCENE (FAR EAST, RUSSIA)
New species of genus Peponia Greville (1863) is described. New species founded in Middle Eocene deposits of Kronotzkii Bay of East Kamchatka (North West Pacific Ocean) may be an index of the Middle Eocene age.
NEW VARIETY PERIDINIUM GATUNENSE NYGAARD VAR. KINNERETA KRACHMALNY (DINOPHYTA) FROM THE LAKE KINNERET (ISRAEL)
Diagnosis and description of the new variety of Peridinium gatunense var. kinnereta Krachmalny var. nov. from the lake Kinneret (Israel) are given. This variety differs from the type one by the morphology and position of the apical plates and sutures between them (1’ – asymmetrical, large, its upper part is shifted to the left side of the body; 3’ – wedge, elongated; 4’ – almost rectangular, its length more than twice exceeds the width; sutures between 4’ and 7’’, 4’ and 1’ plates form an almost straight line; suture between 1’ and 2’ is considerably less than between1’ and 4’ plates, consequently the shape of the plate 1' is close to triangular). Comparison between P. gatunense var. kinnereta and the samples from the other regions where this species is recorded (fresh reservouars of the North, Central and South America, Central Africa, Europe and Tasmania) was carried out.
A.V. Polishchuk, A.A. Voytsekhovich
PHOTOSYNTHETIC PROPERTIES OF SOME FREE-LIVING AND LICHENIZED GREEN TERRESTRIAL ALGAE
The photosynthetic properties of 4 strains of free-living green terrestrial algae (Diplosphaera chodatii, Parietochloris ovoideus, Myrmecia bisecta and Trentepohlia sp.) and 2 strains of green photobionts of lichens (Radiococcus signiensis and Trebouxia australis) were studied. As a result of our work the optimum light intensity for cultivating algae strains at a relative humidity of 45 % was found: for Trentepohlia it is ≤ 100 μE / (m2∙s), Radiococcus and Trebouxia ≤ 200 μE / (m2∙s), Parietochloris ≤ 400 μE / (m2∙s), Diplosphaera and Myrmecia ≤ 800 μE / (m2∙s). Besides, it was revealed that Trentepohlia sp., Radiococcus signiensis and Trebouxia australis are vulnerable to light, while M. bisecta, P. ovoideus and D. chodatii are well adapted to intensive illumination. However, the strains T. australis and D. chodatii in their groups stand high speed photochemical damage even under optimal light intensity.
AMINO-ACID COMPOSITION OF BENTHIC MACROSCOPIC GROWTH OF ALGAE AND BOTTOM SEDIMENT IN THE HYPERHALINE RESERVOIRS
Amino-acid composition of benthic algae growth and bottom sediments (peloid) from the hyperhaline reservoirs on the Berdyansk spit and Arabat arrow (north-west coast of the Azov Sea, Ukraine) has been studied and analyzed. Amino-acid composition of benthic algae growth correlates with amino-acids of appropriate peloids on 93-98 %. Accumulation of amino-acids in peloids depends on oxidation-reduction conditions in hyperhaline reservoir, biomass quantity and a species structure of benthic algae macroscopic growth.
THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON THE CATALASE ACTIVITY OF BLACK SEA ALGAE MASS
Сatalase activity (СA) of 18 Black Sea macrophytes (4 – Chlorophyta, 6 – Phaeophyta and 8 – Rhodophyta) in a gradient of household pollution was studied. Intervals CA found macroalgae, corresponding to the normal functioning of conventionally equal to Ceramium virgatum Roth – 57±12 mcg H2O2 /(g∙min), for Ulva intestinalis L. – 34±9 mcg H2O2 /(g∙min), for Cystoseira barbata (Stackh.) C. Agardh – 64±15 H2O2 mcg/(g∙min) were detected. Comparative evaluation of CA macroalgae of different taxa to household pollution was described. Values of CA of the red algae was above in polluted waters, compared with relatively clean on average 2.5 time. СA of the green algae were increased by 1.4 times, and the brown, except Cystoseira crinita Duby, have not been found varying values of СA in a gradient of pollution. The change of macrophytes CA with the life cycle and by seasonal rhythms has been shown. During the reproduction period CA of the green algae has been increased values by 1.5-1.8 times, the red algae – 2.7 times, the brown species – 3.7 times.The CA of C. barbata was more compared in the winter and spring periods by 5.3 times. The maximum values of the CA of the macroalgae species were found at the 1 m depth at the spring and summer time, the minimum values of AC were marked on the 10 m depth. In winter period the maximum of CA red algae was recorded at 10 m depth, the brown species is at 3 to 5 m depth. The conclusion about the differences in the adaptation strategy antioxidant system in red, green and brown macroalgae has been done.
CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT PER UNIT OF PHYTOPLANKTON BIOMASS IN THE VOLGA RIVER RESERVOIRS
A comparative analysis of chlorophyll a content per phytoplankton biomass unit (chl. a/B) and the factors that influence it in reservoirs of the Volga River was made. The close linear relationship between biomass and chl. a (r2 = 0.73) provides an equation for estimating biomass: B = (0.225±0.010) chl. a. Dependence on abiotic characteristics of waterbody, the taxonomic and size composition of phytoplankton, testify the seasonal changes of chl. a/B in reservoirs and zonal changes in the cascade.
SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN THE RIVER VELIKAYA NEAR CITY PSKOV
During 2011 year were researched seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton species composition and biomass in lower course of the Velikaya River. Hydrochemical investigation of the water was performed and defined distribution of saprobity indexes on stations near city Pskov. In phytoplankton of lower course in the Velikaya River were identified 266 taxa from 8 devisions. Bacillariophyta were the most divers – 116 (43.6 %). Maximum of species quantity reached on station situated upper stream from Pskov. Downstream from the city species quantity decreased that can be connected with influence of Pskov on river waters. During researched period phytoplankton biomass changed from 0,02 to 1,2 mg/L and reached maximum at the downstream station in June. Average biomass on this station was higher than on other stations but species quantity was the lowest. Near city Pskov were registered 5 biomass peaks, while at other stations – only 3. Increase of quantity of biomass peaks can indicate eutrophication rise (Trifonova, 1990). In spring the most diverse were Bacillariophyta in phytoplankton composition, in summer period – Chlorophyta. In autumn dominated Bacillariophyta according to taxa amount, but Chlorophyta diversity also remained significant. The highest values of diatoms biomass were registered at the station near city. Role of green algae increased near city and at downstream station. Saprobity indexes increased in general on station situated downstream from the city and reached maximum – 2.19. According to nutrients concentration and saprobity indexes Velikaya River can be characterized as mesotrophic type and moderately polluted and based on biomass value – as oligo-mesotrophic type.
THE PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF EXPERIMENTAL GLASS PLATES PHYTOPERIPHYTON AND PHYTOPLANKTON IN THE KARANTINNAYA BAY (CRIMEAN COASTAL WATERS OF THE BLACK SEA)
The species composition, abundance, biomass and main production indicators of experimental glass plates periphyton microalgae and phytoplankton were studied. Data were obtained using radiocarbon method for the period 2011-2012, in the Karantinnaya Bay of the Black Sea (near Sevastopol). In the glass plates periphyton 66 taxa of microalgae (MA) were found, including Bacillariophyta (55), Dinophyta (5), Chlorophyta (1) and Cyanoprokaryota (5). In 2011 in periphyton greatest abundance and biomass noted in the winter (t = 7.5-8 °C), when it's values varied during the year accordingly (60-1229)·103 cells·cm-2 and from 0.02-14.64 mg·cm-2; dry weight of the periphyton was greatest in March (t = 11 °C), while it's values varied during the year from 1.6 to 10.4 mg·cm-2; the intensity of photosynthesis maximum (1.41 mg C·mg-1·h-1) was in November (t = 8 °C) and gross primary production of phytoperiphyton – in July (517 mg·m-2·d-1, t = 21.5 °C). The concentration of total suspended matter in the water (fraction more than 0.2 µm) varied from 0.3 to 1.1 mgdry·l-1, with maximum in February 2011 (t = 7 °C), and net production of phytoplankton – from 2.2-458.1 mg·m-3·day-1 with maximum in August (t = 22 °C). The results of the data for the production characteristics of microphytobenthos, phytoperiphyton and phytoplankton from different seas of the World ocean are discussed.
NEW DATA ON THE FLORA OF BACILLARIOPHYTA IN WATERBODIES OF THE LOWER VYG RIVER BASIN (THE REPUBL. OF KARELIA, RUSSIA)
As a result of scanning electron microscopy studies of phytoplankton in waterbodies of the Nizhniyj Vyg River basin, 163 species and varieties of Bacillariophyta from 56 genera have been found, including 29 new for the flora of Karelia and 8 – for Russia. The greatest species diversity has been recorded in the Vygozersk Reservoir and Matkozhnensk reach. The most widespread species in the waterbodies under study are Asterionella formosa, Aulacoseira ambigua, A. tenella, Discostella stelligera, Fragilaria crotonensis, Handmania comta, Tabellaria flocculosa.
NORTHERN EXPANSION OF CYLINDROSPERMOPSIS RACIBORSKII (NOSTOCALES, CYANOPROKARYOTA) OBSERVED IN SHALLOW HIGHLY EUTROPHIC LAKE NERO (RUSSIA)
The emergence and mass development of fresh-water planktonic Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Wołosz) Seenayya et Subba Raju in northern latitudes (57° N) in the hightrophic Lake Nero (The Yaroslavl Region, Russia) were described. This population is close to that of India and France by forms of trichom and the sizes of a geterotsist. The absence of akinetes during mass development makes it similar to populations of pantropics and shows high ecological and geographical plasticity. It is able to produce cyanotoxins. Trace quantities of dissolved cylindrospermopsin were detected using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. The abundance peak (30.5–23.3 % of a total number and biomass of phytoplankton respectively) was short and occurred during a blocking anticyclone in August 2010. The hypothesis of advancing this species to the northern part of the geosphere according to the process of global warming is confirmed. Low transparency, water level, high biogenic load, mineralization, water resistant time and throphic level produce favourable conditions for invasion species. There is a serious threat for emerging toxic populations of algae in reservoirs of a moderate zone.
THE FOSSIL CHLOROPHYTA ALGAE IN THE UPPER JURASSIC REEF DEPOSITS OF SOUTH AND WEST OF UKRAINE
The fossil green Dasyclad algae (Сlypeineae and genuses Acicularia d’Archiac, Salpingoporella Pia, Linoporella Steinmann, Macroporella Pia)and microencrusters Thaumatoporella parvovesiculifera and Koskinobullina socialis from Upper Jurassic reef deposits in South and West of Ukraine are described.
QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF NAKHODKA BAY (THE SEA OF JAPAN, RUSSIA) WATER USING THE MICROALGA PHAEODACTYLUM TRICORNUTUM BOHLIN (BACILLARIOPHYTA)
Quality assessment of the sea water from the Bay of Nakhodka was conducted using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. It was revealed that values of the cell number, the content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids in the microalgae from the tested water deviated from those of the control in all seasons of the study. The length/ width ratio of algal cells was nearly the same as in the control.