S.I. Genkal, V.G.Kharitonov
MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF SEVERAL SPECIES OF THE GENUS AULACOSEIRA THW. (BACILLARIOPHYTA)
Electron microscopic studies of material from Lake Elgygytgyn (Chukotka, Russia) and water bodies of its basin have showed that centric diatoms of the genus Aulacoseira Thw. (A. distans var. septentrionalis Camb. et Charl. and A. perglabra (Ostr.) Haw. emend. Genkal et Kharitonov) manifest significant variability of morphological features (valve diameter, height of the mantle, number of row and areolae in 10 µm, number of spines in 10 µm, and location of areolae on the valve face). A broadened diagnosis of A.perglabra is presented.
THE SEASONAL PECULIARITIES OF THE EPIGENOTYPES OF THE COPPER-SENSITIVE AND COPPER-RESISTANT CULTURES OF DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEOD. DURING ACCUMULATIVE CULTIVATION
In present paper was investigated the growth dynamics and the dynamics of parameters of a primary metabolism (of DNA, RNA and protein content) and a secondary metabolism (threеacylglycerydes (ТG) and b-carotene content) in cells of copper-sensitive (CuS) and copper-resistant (CuR) cultures Dunaliella viridis Teod. on 10th, 20th, 30th and 40th day of cultivation in 2006 and 2007 years. The growth dynamics of the CuS- and CuR-cultures was revealed to be different in standard cultivation conditions in 2006 and in 2007 years. The specific parameters variability of a primary and a secondary metabolism resulted in forming of the specific temporal profiles of DNA, RNA, proteins, ТG and b-carotene content in microalgae cells of the CuS- and CuR-cultures in 2006 and 2007 years. The variability of specific temporal profiles of integral parameters of a primary and a secondary metabolism is supported to be determined by the fluctuation of the electromagnetic radiation of the Sun and to characterize epigenotyps differences of the different Dunaliella Teod. strains.
INFLUENCE OF UREA ON SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF PHYCOBILIN PIGMENTS OF ALGAE
Influence of urea on spectral properties of phycobiliproteins isolated from different species of blue-green and red algae was investigated. Studies on the spectral properties of phycobiliproteins conducted with high concentration of urea play a significant role in the dissociation of phycobilin pigments to subunits. The protein part of a molecule of algal phycobiliproteins is confirmed as important in the manifestation of the species-specific peculiarities of these pigments. The obtained data indicate the expediency of using spectral characteristics of phycobilin pigments as indicators of soil or water pollution by ammonium nitrogen and may be used for express analysis.
THE BLACK SEA SPECIES CYSTOSEIRA C.AG. CATALASE ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
TheBlack Sea algae Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory and C. barbata C.Ag. catalase activity (CA) and its variability at depths of 1-10 m were studied. CA of investigated species was found to decrease by depth. CA of C. crinita decreased from 450 to 12 mkg H2O2/g tissue•min, while C. barbata CA decreased from 250 to 1.7 mkg H2O2/g tissue•min. The С. crinita CA maximum was observed in the spring at a depth of 1 m, and in winter the С. crinita CA maximum was observed at 3-5 m depth. Cystoseira barbata CA maximum was discovered at a depth of 3-5 m, depending on the seasons. The maximum values of the studied species CA was observed in spring, which was probably connected to reproduction processes of CA response to pollution, but a certain tendency to decrease CA of the investigated species was observed.
ALGAE OF THE SEFUNIM CAVE (ISRAEL): SPECIES DIVERSITY AFFECTED BY LIGHT, HUMIDITY AND ROCK STRESSES
Algal flora was studied in the stalagmite cave of Sefunim located in Mount Carmel about 10 km south of Haifa, Israel. Totally 69 species of algae were revealed belonging to Cyanoprokaryota (45), Chlorophyta (15), Bacillariophyta (7), Xanthophyta (2); among them 13 species are newly recorded to Israel. Cyanoprokaryotes proved to be the most diverse and abundant group in all studied cave environments. Number of species sharply decreased from the entrance to the end of the cave (from 46 to 26 species) manifesting prior importance of light intensity for species diversity. Taxonomic composition of algae changed along the gradient of illumination as well: in cyanoprokaryotes the share of chroococcal species decreased and of oscillatorian ones increased from the entrance to the end of the cave. As for eukaryotic algae, in the inner chamber xanthophytes disappeared from the floristic spectrum, Chlorophyta subjected diatoms second rank in species richness. In studied environment species and taxonomic diversity of diatoms to the greater extend depended on the presence of additional moisture then on level of illumination. It was revealed that light intensity, availability of dripping water kind of rock substratum affect the structure of cavericolous algal communities.
PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE WATER BODIES OF THE CITY OF UFA (BASHKORTOSTAN, RUSSIA)
The phytoplankton found in water bodies of Ufa includes 306 species and varieties of algae from 106 genera, 55 families, 30 orders, 14 classes, and 8 divisions. The diatoms are found to have made the largest contribution to the biomass of river phytoplankton. In the Belaya, Sutoloka and Shugurovka rivers, the Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta had the largest number of cells; Bacillariophyta (2003) and Chlorophyta (2004) - in the Ufa. The number of phytoplankton cells in the rivers peaked in June-July period and biomass - in July-August. Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta prevailed in Lake Arkhimandritskoye; species that prevailed in Lake Kustarevskoe were from Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, and Chlorophyta, and in lakes Soldatskoe, Dolgoe and Aksakov prevailed Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta. Peak values of cells number and biomass were observed in July. The most common dominants of phytoplankton were Synedra ulna (found in 9 water bodies), Stephanodiscus hantzschii and Ceratium hirundinella (found in 4 water bodies). Ecological and floristic analyses showed that prevailing groups are cosmopolites, indifferent to pH, halobity and eurisaprobes. Distribution of species-indicators and mean values of Panttle-Bukk index evidenced for a b-mesosaprobic zone. The species found in the Belaya and Ufa rivers are most similar in structure to the dominants due to high anthropogenic pollution.
TAXONOMIC STRUCTURE OF ALGAE FROM INUNDATED FLOODPLAIN LAKES OF MIDDLE LENA AREA (YAKUTIA, RUSSIA)
Algae flora of inundated floodplain lakes of the Lena River basin was investigated for the first time. A comparative analysis of algae taxonomic structure from the floodplain lakes and those located in the area of fluvial terrace above the floodplain, including part of the middle Lena, was carried out. The peak of species diversity of the floodplain lakes investigated is marked during their maximal water heating at the end of July-early August. High similarity of species composition in algae from the floodplain and the Lena River was found. In our opinion, it was connected to algae from being carried from the river during floods. Similarity between algae floras of the lakes investigated and the ones located higher on the fluvial terrace not affected by floods within the middle Lena area is low.
SPECIES AND TAXONOMIC DIVERSITY OF DESMIDIALES FROM SHATSKY NATIONAL NATURAL PARK (UKRAINIAN POLISSYA)
The results of investigation on Desmidiales in 3 lakes (Svytiaz, Luky, Pesochnoe) from Shatsky National Natural Park are presented. 132 species on Desmidiales which belong to 2 families and 17 genera are discovered. For the first time for this region are indicated 26 species from them, including Cosmarium constrictum Delp., C. cf. dorsitruncatum (Nordst.) West, C. infirmum Gronbl., Euastrum pectinatum Breb. ex Ralfs і Staurastrum neglectum W. et G.S. West which are new for Ukraine.
SPECIES OF THE GENUS NAVICULA BORY S.STR. (BACILLARIOPHYTA) FROM SPHAGNUM BOGS OF PRIVOLZHSKAYA HILLS AND THE POLISTOVO-LOVATSKY TRACT (RUSSIA)
The first study of samples from bogs (Privolzhskaya hills, Penza region) and Polistovo-Lovatsky sphagnous tract within Rdeisk State National reserve has revealed 33 Navicula s. str. species. All studied species in this paper are illustrated with original photomicrographs.
PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE WATER BODIES OF THE MIDDLE LENA RIVER BASIN IN THE AREA OF THE PROJECTED OIL-PIPE LINE (YAKUTIA, RUSSIA)
Plankton of 12 natural water bodies located in the water basin of the middle Lena River in the area of the anticipated oil-pipe line, referred to as the East Siberia – Pacific Ocean system, includes 125 algae species found. From floristic and eco-geographic angles, phytoplankton is typical to algae communities of the northern water basins. By quantitative development of phytoplankton natural water bodies are characterized as oligotrophic. Features of composition and distribution of phytoplankton connected with their hydrological and geographic conditions of the water basins studied are found. The data available present the need for further research in conducting biomonitoring under conditions of increasing technogenic loads on water ecosystems of the middle Lena basin.
G.M. Palamar-Mordvintseva, P.M. Tsarenko
The evolution of Charales including its origin and importance in the organic world are discussed. Classification, correlation with other groups of algae and terrestrial plants, importance of molecular and biological researches in establishing the role of Charales are presented also.
PHOSPHORUS LIMITED BLOOM OF EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (LOHM.) HAY ET MOHL. IN THE NORTHEASTERN BLACK SEA
Using bath cultures, mathematic methods and phosphorus, the bloom of Emiliania huxleyi (Lohm.) Hay et Mohl. was found for the first time in the northeastern Black Sea shelf. Low-nitrogen phosphorus ratios did not necessarily point nitrogen as a limiting factor for coccolithophorids growth. The reaction of the phytoplankton community to the supply of nitrogen and phosphorus was determined by the composition of dominants species. If in base culture the role of diatoms was dominating, the nitrate and phosphates supply leads to the full domination of these algae due to their higher specific growth rate (maximum growth rate of diatoms was 1.53 day-1, coccolithophorids – 0.53 day-1). Nitrogen and phosphorus limitation increased the rate of coccolithophorids cell decay up to 0.20 day-1.
DAILY DYNAMICS OF CHLOROPHYLL A IN THE ESTUARINE PELAGIC PHYTOCENOSIS OF THE KOLA INLET (BARENTS SEA)
Daily variability of chlorophyll a of phytoplankton was studied in the estuarine zone of the Kola Inlet (Barents Sea) during three hydrologic seasons (under conditions of different intensity of light and tidal events). Two types of short-period dynamics of this pigment were discovered. The first period occurred in spring and winter hydrologic seasons with maximum daily fluctuations of chlorophyll a levels at night (the period of complete darkness) and less than minimum velocity of tidal currents. The second period was observed in summer under conditions of maximum influence of tidal events and is characterized by rhythmic fluctuations of pigment concentration during the day according to periods of low and high tides of the tidal cycle.
In five limestone speleoobjects (two caves and three grottoes) in the National Nature Park "Podilsky Tovtry", 86 species (87 infraspecies taxa) were revealed. They belong to Cyanoprokaryota (35 species), Chlorophyta (35),Bacillariophyta(7), Xanthophyta (5), Streptophyta (3), and Eustigmatophyta (2). Fifty-six species are first cited for the National Nature Park, eight species are new for the Ukraine, and eight species are noteworthy floristic records. In the grottoes 67 species were recorded; in these ecologically more comfortable habitats green algae prevailed (49-58 % of species composition). Cyanoprocaryotes consisted of 11-29 %. A peculiar feature of the algal flora of caves was lower species diversity (46 species) and a much greater percent of cyanoprocaryotes (40-70 % of species composition). Light intensity was found to be the key factor influencing distribution of algae in the studied speleotops. Taxonomic structure of studied algal flora of the caves has much in common with other European caves, especially the Hungarian caves. A comparison of algal flora of studied grottoes with those inhabiting granite rocks on limestones had greater diversity of cyanoprocaryotes and aerophytic-edaphic species from the classes Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae due to high porosity, water-retaining capacity, and the high рН of this substrate.
ZYGNEMATALES (STREPTOPHYTA) OF WATER BODIES OF KIEV AND KIEV ENVIRONS
As the result of the research of the algal flora of Kiev of small water bodies 14 species (represented by 18 forms) of Zygnematales were found: Spirogyra – 12 species, Zygnema – 2 species. Now a general list of Kiev Zygnematales, including our data, and data found in the literature, contains 34 species (42 forms): Spirogyra – 31 species (39 forms), Mougeotia – 1 species, Zygnema – 2 species). One species (Spirogyra pseudowoodsii V. Poljansk.) and one form (S. maxima (Hass.) Wittr. f. woronoichinia V. Poljansk.) are new for the flora of the Ukraine. The description of morphological peculiaries of Kiev populations and original pictures of the taxa are presented.
CYANOPROKARYOTA OF THE WATER BODIES OF DNIPROVSKO-ORILSKY NATURAL RESERVE (UKRAINE)
Species composition of Cyanoprokaryota of the water bodies of Dniprovsko-Orilsky Natural Reserve totaled 120 species (124 taxa of infraspecific rank) which belonged to 33 genera, 13 families, 3 orders, and 2 classes. The highest number of species (115) was found in floodlands: 101 – in water bodies connected to the Dnipro River and 54 – in water bodies separated by the Dnipro River. Species diversity of the other types of water bodies was much lower. Seasonal dynamics of Cyanoprokaryota were retraced. In spring 44 species (45 infr. taxa) were found, in summer – 102 (106), and in autumn – 55. Some rare yet noteworthy species were revealed, namely, Pannus leloupii (Kuff.) Hindak – new species for the Ukraine, Bacularia vermicularis (Fedor.) Komarek et Anagn., and Tolypothrix distorta Kutz. – new for the steppe zone of the Ukraine, Chroococcus cohaerens (Breb.) Nageli, Oscillatoria redekei Goor and Nostoc entophytum Born. et Flah. – are rare for the steppe zone of the Ukraine.
RESEARCH OF CHARALES OFZYTOMIR POLISSIA (UKRAINE)
The results of a study on species composition of the Zytomir Polissia charophytes (Charales) are presented. Nine taxa belonging to the genera Chara L. (5) and Nitella C. Agardh (4) were found. It was shown that Ch. delicatula C. Agardh, N. flexilis (L.) C. Agardh, and N. mucronata (A. Braun) Miq. in H.C. Hall, rare species in the Red Check List of Charales of the Ukraine, occur most frequently within the investigated territory whereas Ch. contraria A. Braun ex Kutz., Ch. fragilis Desv. in Loisel., and Ch. vulgaris L., widespread species, are less frequent in these investigated territories. Ch. aspera Dethard. ex Willd. and N. gracilis(Sm.) C. Agardh are first cited for Zytomir Polissia. A record of N. capillaris (Krock.) J. Groves et Bull.-Webst. is confirmed for this territory (after 1972). The species composition of Charales of Zytomir Polissia was compared to those of Volyn and Kiev Polissia. Species distribution of Charales in water bodies throughout the Right-Bank Ukrainian Polissia has been revealed.
COMPARISON OF SPECIES DIVERSITY OF ALGAE OF THE LOWER DANUBE LAKES (UKRAINE)
Species diversity of algae of the Lower Danube Lakes was studied. Investigators found 196 species of algae belonging to 5 divisions, 9 classes, 22 orders, 46 families, and 73 genera. Thirty (30) species are new for the Lower Danube Lakes. One species of diatom algae – Navicula alineae L.-B. was described as new for the Ukraine.
NEW AND RARE FOR UKRAINE SPECIES CYANOPHYTA (CYANOPROKARYOTA)
Eight new species Cyanophyta (Gloeocapsa violascea, G. biformis, Gloeocapsopsis polyedrica, Chroococcus pallidus, Ch. turicensis, Ch. spelaeus, Pseudocapsa dubia, Leptobasis tenuissima) and 3 rare species Cyanophyta (Gloeocapsa sanguinea, Gloeocapsopsis cyanea, G. pleurocapsoides) cited for Ukraine are presented. Descriptions and drawings are given.
BATRACHOSPERMUM KERATOPHYTUM BORY EMEND. R.G. SHEATH, M.L. VIS ET K.M. COLE, A NEW FRESHWATER REDALGAL SPECIES FOR UKRAINE
A noteworthy species of freshwater red algae, Batrachospermum keratophytum Bory emend. R.G. Sheath, M.L. Vis et K.M. Cole, was record for the first time in the Ukraine. Information on the taxonomic position, description, and locations of B. keratophytum in the Ukraine is provided.
ALGOLOGYCAL DEPARTMENT OF N.G. KHOLODNY INSTITUTE OF BOTANY NAS OF UKRAINE – 75 YEARS
Problems of the formation and development of the Department of Phycology (department/ laboratory) of the N.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, NAS of Ukraine during 75 years are given. The main directions of researches and achievement of the department/ laboratory as well as the scientific plans for the future phycological investigations are presented.
S.I. Genkal, A.E. Kuzmina, G.I. Popovskaya
MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF STEPHANODISCUS INCONSPICUUS (BACILLARIOPHYTA)
The study of morphological features of the frustule of Stephanodiscus inconspicuus Makarova et Pomazkina emend. Genkal, Kuzmina et Popovskaya (Bacillariophyta) revealed significant variability inthe species and has linked them synonymously to Crateriportulainconspicuus(Makarova et Pomazkina) Flower et Hakansson.
COMPOSITION AND QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF PERIPHYTON MICROALGAE IN COASTAL WATERS NEAR VLADIVOSTOK CITY (RUSSIA)
A comparative analysis of specific and quantitative composition of periphyton microalgae in two bays of the Japan Sea in a summer-autumn period was made. The extremely-eutroptical Gold Horn Bay and the temperately-eutroptical Sukhoputnaya Bay were investigated. Seventy-three species and infraspecific taxa of algae belonging to Bacillariophyta (66 species and infraspecific taxa), Dinophyta (5) and Chrysophyta (2) were studied; from them 48 taxons – in Gold Horn Bay, 66 – in Sukhoputnaya Bay. In an extremely-eutroptical basin the density of microalgae was from 0.1 to 19.4 mln cells·m-2 and biomass – from 0.18 to 9.6 mg·m-2; the values indexes of Shannon (Н) and of Pielou (е) were Н = 1.71 and е = 1.76 for diatoms; in temperately-eutrophycal basin – from 0.6 to 23.9 mln cells·m-2, biomass – from 1.96 to 49.2 mln cells·m-2; Н = 0.41 and e = 0.51.
MATERIALS TO THE FLORA OF BACILLARIOPHYTA IN THE PASVIK RIVER (PATSOIKI, MURMAN REGION, RUSSIA). 1. CENTROPHYCEAE
The first algological studies of phytoplankton from the largest river of the North Fennoscandia has revealed 17 species and varieties of Bacillariophyta (Centrophyceae); among which representatives of the genus Aulacoseira dominate taxonomical diversity. Rare for the flora of the Russia species Aulacoseira distans (Ehr.) Simonsen var. nivaloides (Camburn) Siver et Kling, A. lacusctris (Grunow) Krammer, and a new genus and species Brevisira arentii (Kolbe) Krammer have been investigated. A list of centric diatom species from the White Sea basin has been broadened from 35 to 43 taxa.
TAXONOMIC DIVERSITY OF ALGAL COMMUNITIES IN THE TETEREV RIVER (UKRAINE)
The paper deals with the results of original studies of phytoplankton, phytomicroepiphyton, phytomikroepiliton taxonomical diversity investigations from the headwaters of the Teterev River to the flow into the Kiev water reservoir, including the regulated river stretches and some of the tributaries. 692 species have been identified, represented by 871 infraspecific taxa including the nomenclative species type. In general, representatives of Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Euglenophyta dominate in the river. Approximately 50 % of species and infraspecific taxa in the Teterev River are identified for the first time. High level of species similarity in the river phytomicroepilliton and phytomicroepiphyton is established.
ALGOFLORA OF IRANIAN RIVERS
In algal flora of rivers in Iran 891 species (1040 infraspecific taxa) from 8 divisions of algae include: Cyanophyta – 111 (120), Euglenophyta – 70 (87), Chrysophyta – 11 (15), Xanthophyta – 32 (32), Bacillariophyta – 413 (511), Dinophyta – 26 (30), Cryptophyta – 6 (6), Chlorophyta – 222 species (239 inf. taxa). The data on families and genera are recorded. The structure of algae in ecological environments is analyzed. In phytoplankton are revealed 473 (525), in phytobenthos – 845 (984), and in periphyton – 176 species (194 infr. taxa).
NEW TRIRADIATE DIATOM SPECIES FROM THE GENUS TABELLARIA EHR. (BACILLARIOPHYTA)
A description of Tabellaria stellata Kulikovskiy sp. nov. is given. This taxon has tripolar valves that were unknown in the genus Tabellaria Ehr. (Bacillariophyta). The tripolar shape of valves of T. stellata are similar to Fragilaria reicheltii (Voigt) Lange-Bert.
NEW FIND Of RHODOPHYTA FROM SEVERSKIY DONEC RIVER (UKRAINE)
A detailed description and photomicrograph taken during 2007 and 2008 are presented. Fixed material and gerbarium standards of including in the funds of Herbarium Kharkov National University NU (CWU). Rhodophyta – Thorea hispida (Thore) Desvaux is a new species from the Severskiy Donec River in the Ukraine.
SAMPLING DEVICE FOR CONCENTRATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON UNDER PRESSURE
A simple but reliable construction of a compact device to concentrate phytoplankton under pressure while sampling, has been investigated. The advantage of this construction, unlike the existing facilities, lies in the availability of initial materials and the simplicity of its making when the device does not any special engineering knowledge and skills. Compactness, absence of fragile glass elements, availability to use in the field conditions contribute to the value of this device.
FRUSTULE FUNCTIONS AND FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF BACILLARIOPHYTA
On the basis of new data on diatom frustule functions, found in the field of nanotechnology, the conclusion was made about a multifunctional role of most frustule structural elements and their taking part in many vital functions of the diatom single-cell organism. The proposal on revision of the morphological terms for the diatom frustule description is put on the modern universal base. The concept on a possible approach to diatom functional morphology and the definitions of the diatom frustule basic element (= db-element) and morph of the diatom frustule (= df-morph) for description of fine morphology are suggested. Some structures of frustule as velum, areola, stria are considered in the light of function morphology.
О.А. Lisovskaya, О.V. Stepanyan
DIVERSITY OF SUMMER MACROPHYTOBENTHOS OF TAMAN PENINSULA COAST
SPECIES DIVERSITY OF ALGAE OF WATER BODIES OF "MEDOBORY" NATURE RESERVE (UKRAINE)
Species diversity of algae in reservoirs of the "Medobory" Nature Reserve was investigated in 189 species (201 infraspecific taxa). Among them, 170 species (181 infraspecific taxa) are new for the reserve. Chlorophyta, Cyanoprokaryota, Bacillariophyta, and Euglenophyta are dominant groups. The highest species diversity is sighted in rivers (113 species, 120 taxa of infr. rank), ponds (91 species, 99 infraspecific taxa) and ephemeral water bodies (62 species, 67 infraspecific taxa). The least number of species was recorded in streams: 4 species only. Six species (one of which is rare) were found in algal flora of the Ukraine; among them, 3 species and one form are new for the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine.
PECULARITIES OF THE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE DNIEPER RIVER TRIBUTARIES
Literature and original data on the species diversity and taxonomic structure of plankton algae of 16 tributaries of the middle and lower reaches of the Dnieper River, including the Pripyat, Uzh, Teterev, Zdvizh, Irpen, Desna, Lybed, Stugna, Krasnaya, Trubezh, Ros, Rosava, Supoy, Vorskla, Inguletz, and Vysun, have been generalized in the paper. It has been found that in the studied water bodies phytoplankton was represented by 811 species and 924 infraspecific taxa belonging to 9 divisions, 16 classes, 45 orders, 96 families, and 209 genera.
GREEN ALGAE OF SOME WATERBODIES OF LEFT-BANK POLISSYA (UKRAINE)
The data on diversity of green algae in Left-Bank Polissya swamps and peatbogs have been presented. Totally 211 species (226 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 6 classes, 15 orders, 29 families and 79 genera have been found. 30 species are first cited for studied area and 4 of them are new for Ukraine (Cosmariumdorsitruncatum(Nordst.) West, CosmocladiumperissumRoy et Biss., StaurastrumsubaciculiferumHirano and Xanthidium antilopaeum (Breb.) Kutz. var. triquetrum Lund.).
NEW DATA ON THE FLORA OF DIATOM ALGAE (CENTROPHYCEAE) IN LAKE ERIE (CANADA, USA)
Scanning electron microscopy studies of modern materials on phytoplankton from Lake Erie allowed the discovery of new for the lake’s flora centric diatoms of specific and generic rank (11), updating systematic position of some species and varieties and broadeninig of Centrophyceae taxonomic spectrum in this lake up to 44 species and 11 genera. The appearance of Cyclotella ocellata – Stephanodiscus niagarae complex in the phytoplankton points to a decrease in the lake’s trophic level.
For the first time original microphotos of disputable species Volvox polychlamys Korsch., as well as ecological data and the description of a local population of this species from the Kiev reservoir are presented. A similarity of a structure of cell covers of V. polychlamys and unicellular phytomonads from genus Vitreochlamys Batko is noted, the possibility of their relations are discussed.
THE ISOLATION OF AUTOTROPHIC BENTHOS INDICATOR SPECIES OF STERLITAMAK CITY WATERCOURSE (RUSSIA)
The certain methods of floristic classification are used to isolate the autotrophic benthos indicator species in the watercourse of Sterlitamak during the observation period form September 2005 to April 2008. In the waters of the Belaya, Ashkhadar, Sterlya, Olhovka rivers and in the water spring 267 species and intraspecific taxa of algae were identified, belonging to 88 genera, 28 orders, 13 classes and 7 divisions. Considering the saprobic zones of alga and cyanoprokaryotes, the two groups of waters were identified. The first group included the Belaya, Ashkhadar and Sterlya rivers, where b-mesosaprobes were dominating; the second group included the Olhovka river with the water spring, where oligosaprobes were dominating. During the treatment of algae, 3 communities and 3 variants were found. The community Achnanthes lanceolata – Pinnularia viridis included species (28) prevalent in the Belaya, Ashkhadar and Sterlya rivers. It combined cyanobacterial-algal cenoses formed in the areas of anthropogenic degradation. Within the community the 3 variants are identified: 1. Aphanothece elabens (22 species), prevalent in the Belaya River; 2. Trachelomonas hispida – in the Ashkhadar River (19); 3. Phacus pyrum in the Sterlya River (10). The communities Navicula lacustris – Amphora ovalis var. gracilis (13 species) form the Olhovka River and Cyclotella bodanica – Gyrosigma attenuatum (13 species) form the water spring included the species prevalent in cooler, fast flowing water on the small depth.
TENDENCIES IN DEVELOPMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF BACILLARIOPHYTA
Review concerns questions of reproductive biology, the field of biology that relates to such fundamental items as sexual reproduction, life cycles, breeding systems, rules of sex determination and inheritance. Tendencies of reproductive biology are discussed in chronological order. Unresolved problems are accentuated. The role of reproductive biology methods combined with the methods of molecular biology is emphasised. Publications over the last 150 years are analysed.
ON THE NOMENCLATURE OF CERAMIUM RUBRUM (RHODOPHYTA)
A nomenclature problems of misuse of a species name Ceramium rubrum auctorum are analyzed. The correct name of the taxon is demonstrated to be C. virgatum Roth.
Voloshko L.N., Pljusch A.V., Titova N.N.
TOXINS OF CYANOBACTERIA (СYANOPHYTA)
The review focuses on the compounds that impact upon humans and livestock, either as toxins or as pharmaceutically useful substances. The classifiation of cyanotoxins, their role in nature, the genetic regulation of cyanotoxin production, the effects of environmental factors on toxin biosynthesis by cyanobacteria, and the problems of toxin biodegradation are discussed.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND BIOMOLECULAR COMPOSITION OF CERTAIN FRESH WATER MICROALGAE COLLECTED FROM RIVER GODAVARI (INDIA)
The microalgae are of significant attraction as natural source of bioactive molecules. Twenty four different fresh water algal species were screened for their antibacterial activity and biomolecules. Bactericidal activity was tested against two gram+ve and four gram-ve bacteria. Maximum antibacterial activity was observed in methanol extracts and least in aqueous extracts. Maximum activity (14 mm) was observed in the extracts of Nostoc, Lyngbya, Mougeotia and Pithophora sp. Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than gram-negative bacteria. Thirteen algal species are associated with tannins and phenols, 11 species with steroids, 5 species with flavonoids and 8 species with saponins. Maximum chlorophyll a was recorded with Ulothrix (5.6 mg/g) and least in Tolypothrix (0.5 mg/g). Chlorophyll b was recorded maximum in Vaucheria (4.2 mg/g) and least in Cylindrospermum (0.6 mg/g). Maximum carotenoid content is recorded in Ulothrix (4.5 mg/g) and least in Tolypothrix and Oscillatoria (0.6 mg/g). Range of protein content is 4-20 % with maximum yield in Cylindrospermum sp. (20 %) and least in Hydrodictyon (4 %). Carbohydrate content ranged from 14-35 % with maximum yield in Mougeotia (35 %) and least in Tolypothrix (14 %). Their pharmacological activities and bioactive molecules can be highly exploited.
EFFECT OF NOSTOC MUSCORUM AG. EX BORN. ET FLAH. TOXINS ON UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT OF MICE
Intraperitonial administration of 10 µL of Nostoc muscorum Ag. ex Born. et Flah. crude extract was sufficient enough for the death of m ale AKR strain mice at 4h of exposure. Body weight, behavioral and histological observations (necrosis of hepatic cells), and biochemical tests (protein phosphatase inhibition) indicated for the presence of microcystines in the crude extract. Since, the cyanobacterium was airborne, the very doses were also administered intranasally into mice. A dose of 10 µL of the crude extract resulted in severe morphological alterations of nasal mucosa at 6h of exposures, but not beyond nasal cavity. Though, presence of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A in the tracheal tissues confirmed the susceptibility of the upper respiratory tissues against microcystins. However, due to the deposition of insufficient amount of toxins post–nasal cavity respiratory tissues exhibited no response. This indicated that the route of exposure plays an important role in conferring toxicity.
THE EFFECTS OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION ON THE KANEV RESERVOIR (UKRAINE) PHYTOPLANKTON. 1. PHYTOPLANKTON DYNAMICS AT STATIONS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF POLLUTION
The aim of the investigation was to compare the phytoplankton structure in two zones of the river part of Kanev Reservoir characterized by different levels of urban pollution. Two stations were selected for this purpose: 1, in a relatively pure area of the the river part of Kanev Reservoir; and 2, at the mouth of the Dneiper tributary, the Syrets River, which has been polluted by mineral and organic substances from urban sewage. The "vibrancy" of the phytoplankton was evaluated by determining their biomass, cell abundance, and cell surface area (denoted as B, N, and S, respectively), achieved on the basis of a routine monitoring dataset collected over 24 months at these stations. The investigated zones were characterized by divergent phytoplankton composition and considerably different annual dynamics. The profiles shown by the B, N and S dynamics of the phytoplankton at station 1 were characterized by regular and predictable peaks in summer, formed by the same complex of algal species. Similar-type graphs for station 2 exhibited 3-4 peaks per year formed by completely different groups of algae during different periods. Furthermore, the saprobic zone indicator species, as well as those characterized by highly specific cell-surface estimates, were often observed at station 2. Such species were absent or developed only to a minor extent in phytoplankton of station 1. These facts can be interpreted as symptoms of ecosystem destabilization at station 2, which could be due to the impact of polluted water from the Syrets River on the phytoplankton of the Kanev Reservoir.
MACROSCOPIC ALGAL GROWTHS AND CONCOMITANT MICROMYCETES
The paper presents results of the investigation of inter relations between autotrophic (algae) and heterotrophic (micromycetes) microorganisms inhabiting soil surface and bark of trees.
ALGAE OF MARINE LITTORAL AND INLAND WATER BODIES OF GALINDEZ ISLAND (ARGENTINE ISLANDS, ANTARCTIC)
This research reveals the results of 34 algological samples collected in marine littoral and inland water bodies of Galindez Island. Samples were collected in February-March 2004 from the surface of thalli of macrophytic algae Cystoseira nehlecta, Sargassum sp., Undaria pinnatifida, and shells of Nacella concinna, rocks, snow, and ice. A total of 64 taxa belonging to five divisions of algae were revealed. Diatoms (56 species) made up the majority in species diversity; cyanophytes (4 species), chlorophytes (2), chryzophytes (1) and dinophytes (1) were poorly represented. In marine littoral of Galindez Island 51 species were recorded, and 13 species occurred in inland lakes. Coscinodiscus radiatus, Odontella aurita, and Thalassiothrix longissima dominated in marine littoral. Microcystis pulverea, Gleocapsa magma , Phormidium tenue, Aulacoseira islandica, Chlamydomonas nivalis, and Monoraphidium antarcticus were abundant on the snow and ice surface coloring it in yellow-green and red tints.
ALGAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF SOME EARLY MIOCENE SEQUENCES, NORTH EASTERN DESERT (EGYPT)
The Early Miocene deposits in Gebel Genefe, North Eastern Desert, unconformably overlies the Oligocene and Eocene deposits. They consist predominantly of regressive and transgressive mixed siliciclastic/carbonate sediments of shallow marine environments. The Early Miocene deposits are represented lithostratigraphically by the Gharra Formation that comprises four members, from base to top: Agrud, Sadat, Hommath and Genefe Members. Two measured sections were described and investigated: Gebel Genefe sectin and Gebel Agrud section. The coralline red algae are highly abundant in Sadat and Genefe members as fragments, crusts and rhodoliths. Large foraminifera, corals, echinoids, bivalves, gastropods, bryozoans, benthic and planktonic foraminifers, dasyclades are also present. These two members consist of dolomitized bioclastic packstone, grainstone to floastones/rudstone with rhodoliths (up to 3 cm in size). The systematic study led to the recognition of 14 coralline algal species. Lithophyllum sp. dominates the coralline associations at the generic level, followed by Mesophyllum spp., Lithothamnion spp. and Spongites spp. The vertical distribution of the coralline red algae in the two concerned sections allowed to subdivide the Early Miocene sequence into two local coralline algal zones, from base to top: Lithophyllum ghorabi zone (including the Sadat Member) and Mesophyllum iraqense (covering the Genefe Member). The rhodoliths populations in the two sections were analyzed in terms of their size, shape, massiveness, symmetry, algal growth forms, algal species diversity, epibionts and borings. These parameters reflect environmental differences between the two studied sections. A comparison of the two the analyzed rhodoliths populations show common features, but also significant differences are recorded. The rhodoliths populations of Gebel Genefe were formed under low energy conditions characterized by porous rhodoliths with higher primary porosity, less frequent epibionts, more boring and thick coralline algal thalli as well as greater asymmetry. On the contrary, in Gebel Agrud the analyzed rhodoliths population were formed in high energy conditions of more shallower water marine environments and characterized by more mobile, symmetrical rhodoliths, more frequent of epibiont, thin coralline thalli.
ABOUT A NEW REPRESENTATIVE OF THE GENUS DISCOSTELLA HOUK ET KLEE (BACILLARIOPHYTA) FROM THE TRANSBAIKAL AREA (RUSSIA)
Based on the results of a study of phytoplankton from Lake Nichatka (the Transbaikal area), a new for the science small-celled species from the genus Discostella Houk et Klee (Bacillariophyta) is described.
Novikova I.P., Parshikova T.V., Vlasenko V.V., Zubenko I.B.
CHANGE OF THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII DANG. CELLS AT THE PRESENCE OF K2Cr2O7 IN THE ENVIRONMENT
It was investigated an influence of K2Cr2O7 on photosynthetic activity and cells mobility for green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dang. It was established that even at low concentrations of K2Cr2O7 cells of green algae are sensitive to its effect. Also it was determined lethal and sublethal concentrations of K2Cr2O7 for Ch. reinhardtii cells.
ISOENSYME SPECTRUM OF CHLOROPHYTA PEROXIDASE
The aim of the work was a comparative study of substrate specificity of molecular forms (MF) of green alga peroxidase depending on their systematic position, ecological conditions, of place and period of vegetation. Peroxidase activity was determined after the electrophoretic separation of proteins in PAAG, using benzidine, pyrogallol, pyrocatechol and guaiacol as substrata. Plural MFs of peroxidase both with wide substrate specificity and with expressed affinity only to one substrata were found in green alga. The greater number of MFs with wide substrate specificity was detected in unicellular green alga than it was found in more evolutional advanced multicellular green alga. The number of MFs of peroxidase in the integral spectra of green macrophytes, as well as early studied red and brown alga, was lesser than in blue-green alga. It was concluded that substrate specificity of peroxidase in green alga as well as in blue-green and red alga is narrowed with complication of their organization. The data are evidenced of evolutional importance of enzymatic MFs diversity and allow to consider them as one of units in the biochemical mechanisms of adaptation.
PECULIARITIES OF ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF UNICELLULAR SOIL ALGA EUSTIGMATOS MAGNUS (J.B. PETERSEN) HIBBERD (EUSTIGMATOPHYTA) IN SOUTHERN URAL (RUSSIA)
Original and literature data on the distribution of soil alga Eustigmatos magnus (J.B. Petersen) Hibberd 1981 (syn. Pleurochloris magna J. B. Petersen 1932) and how different ecological factors (both natural and anthropogenous) affect it are analyzed and discussed.
THE EFFECTS OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION ON THE KANEV RESERVOIR (UKRAINE) PHYTOPLANKTON. 2. COMPARISON OF SIZE SPECTRUM PATTERNS
The results of a comparative study of the phytoplankton assemblage structure in two parts of the Kanev Reservoir, characterized by different levels of urban pollution, are presented. Analysis of pattern variability for several types of size spectra, namely the biomass size spectrum (BSS), the normalized biomass size spectrum (NBS) and the traditional taxonomic size spectrum (TTSS), was performed on the basis of a dataset produced by routine monitoring during a 24–month period at two stations in the Kanev Reservoir ( Ukraine ). Station 1 was situated in a relatively pure riverine part of the reservoir, whereas station 2 was located further down, at the mouth of the Syrets River, which carries the outflow of Kiev sewage. Both stations were characterized by markedly different phytoplankton composition and dynamics. While the BSS curves were very different, the annual NBS and TTSS curves exhibited a similar general pattern, with some differences evidenced in the fine structure of each spectrum. The obtained indices of the traditional taxonomic size spectrum (TTSS) that characterize the state of phytoplankton in a relatively pure area of the Kanev Reservoir (st. 1) and in st. 2, which was contaminated by urban drains of Kiev sewage at the mouth of the Syrets River, are compared with the same indices of a clean fresh-water reservoir, in particular Lake Kinneret (Israel). The impact of this urban pollution, as evidenced through the deformations of the size spectrum patterns, is discussed in detail.
MICROPHYTOBENTHOS IN SOUTHERN BAIKAL (RUSSIA)
Quantitative indices of microphytobenthos have been obtained on the basis of long-term studies. Dominant structures of communities, seasonal, inter-annual and zonal changes of abundance and biomass of mictophytobenthos under different ecological conditions of Southern Baikal have been analyzed. It is caused by changes of species diversity of algae community structures as well as by environmental factors. Spring and summer rises of abundance and biomass of microphytobenthos with the prevalence of the summer one is characteristic of seasonal dynamics.
PECULIARITIES OF THE SPECIES COMPOSITION OF EPIPHYTIC ALGAE OF WATER BODIES OF THE CITY OF KIEV
Data on the species composition of phytoepiphyton of four ecological groups of vascular aquatic plants occurring in different water bodies of the city of Kiev are given for the first time. A total of 301 species of algae represented by 326 infraspecific taxa were found as a result of investigations carried out in 2005 - 2007. Ecological characteristics of epiphytic algae were taken into account in analyzing the species composition of epiphytic algae.
ALGAE OF AZOVO-SYVASHSKI NATIONAL NATURE PARK (UKRAINE)
Paper deals with the first results of study of algae in habitats with various levels of soil salinity and types of vegetation (true-solonchak, meadow-halophilous, saline steppes), or free of vascular plants. Totally 92 species of prokariotic and eukariotic algae were revealed: Cyanoprokatyota – 49, Chlorophyta – 28, Bacillariophyta – 12, Xanthophyta – 2, Eustigmatophyta – 1. Cyanoprokaryotes is the leading group in studied habitats in species richness, frequency and abundance. The most rich and diverse algal flora was revealed on sites of wet gleyic solonchaks with herbaceous and subshrub halophilous vegetation (70 species). It was shown that in terrestrial habitats the share of eukariotic algae and average number of species in the sample rise with the increase of herbage density. 14 taxa are new or noteworthy records for Ukraine. They include 7 species of cyanoprokaryotes, 5 of chlorophytes and 2 species of xanthophytes. Representatives of Xanthophyta were recorded in saline soils if Ukraine for the first time.
SPECIES DIVERSITY OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN THE WATERS OF ARGENTINE ISLANDS (ANTARCTIC)
Results of studies of species diversity of phytoplankton are presented for the waters of Argentine islands. Water samples were collected during 7 th (2002-2003) and 10 th (autumn 2005) Ukrainian antarctic expeditions. Seasonal variations in the community species composition have been described; the dominant species and taxa, and the time periods of their vegetation were identified for the first time in the waters of Argentine islands. A total of 151 microalgal species (157 taxa, including subspecies and varieties) were recorded, which represented 8 taxonomic divisions. Bacillariophyta (95 spp., 101 taxa) and Dinophyta (34 spp.) were the most species-rich divisions while the others were represented by 1 to 8 taxa only. The highest species diversity was registered in spring and early summer. Three main peaks of the phytoplankton abundance occurred annually during the spring-summer period, corresponding with population maxima of Phaeocystis pouchetii (Chrysophyta) in October, the diatom genera Fragilariopsis, Achnanthes and Corethron in November and early December, and a bloom of Cryptomonas sp., Pyramimonas sp. and other small flagellates in the middle January. Changes in the list of the dominant species, their abundance and size distribution were in accordance with the I to III stages of the spring-summer succession. In autumn and early polar winter when the vegetation was extinct, phytoplankton abundance and species diversity were low.
NEW SPECIES OF BACILLARIOPHYTA FOR FLORA OF UKRAINE
Data about finding of species of Bacillariophyta new for Ukraine are presented. Detailed descriptions and drawings are given.
Bozhkov A.I., Menzyanova N.G., Kovalyova M.K.
ANNUAL RHYTHM OF THE GROWTH INTENSITY OF CULTURES MICROALGAE DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEOD. (СHLOROPHYTA) AND SOME HELIOPHYSICS FACTORS FLUCTUATIONS
The intensity of growth of periodic culture microalgae D. viridis, the protein, triacylglycerides, b-carotene contents in its cells within a calendar year in case of standard constant cultivation conditions (constant light exposure, temperature, structure of environment etc.) were investigated. It was revealed that despite of constant cultivation conditions intensity of growth, the protein, triacylglycerides, b-carotene contents were characterized by seasonal variability. Negative correlation between intensity of growth of culture of microalgae and absolute values of the solar spots area (electromagnetic radiation of the Sun) and Volf's numbers (corpuscular radiation of the Sun) is revealed. Dependence of the protein, triacylglycerides, b-carotene contents from heliophysics factors absolute values had both linear and U-shaped character. Biotropic effects ambiguity of heliophysics factors can specify change dominating biotropic factors during growth of microalgae D. viridis (principle PDF).
TRACE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF ALL-THE-YEAR-ROUND VEGETATING MACRO ALGAE ON THE STONY LITTORAL OF LAKE BAIKAL (RUSSIA)
The results of examination of trace element composition of all-the-year-round vegetating algae on the stony littoral of Lake Baikal are presented. It has been found out that the mineral composition of Cladophora compacta (C. Meyer) C. Meyer, Chaetocladella pumila (C. Meyer) C. Meyer et Skabitsch. is dominated by Mn, Sr, Ti; Tolypothrix distorta (Fl. Dan) Kutz. f. distorta, Schizothrix sp. - by Ti and Sr, Stratonostoc verrucosum (Vauch.) Elenk. f. verrucosum - by Sr and Zn. In these species trace elements concentrate in groups. With respect to water, the species under study concentrate Ti>La>Ce>Mn,Y. C. compacta, Ch. pumila and Schizothrix sp. stand out by their ability to accumulate Rb, Schizothrix sp. - Cd and Cu. In comparison to bottom sediments, algae accumulate Mo, and moreover, Ch. pumila, T. distorta, S. verrucosum concentrate Zn, Ch. pumila, Schizothrix sp. - Cd and Schizothrix sp. - Cu. According to the intensity of concentrating trace elements with respect to water, the algae may be presented in the following sequence: T. distorta > Schizothrix sp. > Ch. pumila > C. compacta > S. verrucosum; with respect to bottom sediments - Ch. pumila > C. compacta > Schizothrix sp. > T. distorta > S. verrucosum.
CONSUMPTION OF BIOGEN RATE BY CULTIVATION OF GELIDIUM LATIFOLIUM (GREV.) BORN. ET THUR. (RHODOPHYTA)
Results of Full 23 type Factor Experiment, on cultivation of Gelidium latifolium (Grev.) Born. et Thur., in which three factors were changed on two levels (salinity – 26 and 34‰, biogen's concentration – nitrogen 6.16 and 8.54 mg/l, phosphorus 1,24 and 1,74 mg/l – and volume density of planting – 2 and 4 g/l) have been presented. Intensity of light was 24-26 Klk, temperature – 24-260 C. Mathematical models of average specific daily rate of biomass's growth and average specific rate of biogen's consumption (VN, VP) were constructed. It has been shown, that varied from 0.025 to 0.073 day-1, VN – from 23 to 71 µg/g·h. and VP – from 2.6 to 9.6 µg/g·h. It was determined, that initial concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus increasesd during 24 h 2,5-10 times.
FLUCTUATIONS OR DIFFERENT YEARS CHANGEABILITY OF PHYTOCENOSIS OF THE OFF-SHORE ECOTONE CONCERNING THE BAYS OF THE BLACK SEA
While long-termed investigating structure-functional features of the summer macrophytobenthos were highlighted as well as its fluctuations within the off-shore ecotone of the Black Sea. It was shown, that the most of ground phytocenosis features were undergone interannual wide range changes to be far fewer than that estimates indicating a stable level. A character of changes and the fact that more than a half of species have been constantly forming phytocenosis within different years enable to consider the state of macrophyte link as dynamically steady one to provide the whole biosystem with stability in time.
USING SPECIFIC SURFACE INDEX OF CELLS IN ANALYZING MORPHO-STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON GROUPS
A comparative analysis of the level of quantitative development of different sized phytoplankton groups in areas with hydrochemical regimes of the northwestern Black sea and adjacent water bodies has been made. For these areas a higher number of contributions cells with a greater specific surface has been noted characterizing a more rapid metabolic rate. The interrelation between the morpho-structural organization of phytoplankton and the biogenic content of the area under study has been analyzed.
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE FLORA OF CHARALES OF THE SOUTHWEST UKRAINE
A taxonomic list of Charales of the southwest Ukraine (comprising original and literature data) with synonyms, distribution in Ukraine and general distribution is given. It contains 16 species belonging to Chara L. (13), Lamprothamnium J. Groves (1), Nitella C. Agardh (1), and Nitellopsis Hy (1). Recently ten species have been found in the investigated territory including three new ones (Ch. connivens Salzm. ex A. Braun, Ch. uzbekistanica Hollerb., N. mucronata (A. Braun) Miq. in H.C. Hall). However, Ch. braunii C.C. Gmelin, Ch. contraria A. Braun ex Kutz., Ch. fragilis Desv. in Loisel., Ch. horrida Wahlst., Ch. tenuispina A. Braun, and Ch. schaffneri (A. Braun) Allen known from the previous references have not been revealed. The growth areas of Ch. aculeolata Kutz. in Rchb., L. papulosum (Wallr.) J. Groves, Nitellopsis obtusa (Desv. in Loisel.) J. Groves and Ch. canescens Desv. et Loisel. in Loisel. (Red Book of Ukraine species) have strongly reduced. Maybe these changes in the flora of Charales of the southwest Ukraine connect with anthropogenic impact and general increasing of salinity in inland water bodies of the investigated territory.
CHRYSAMOEBA RADIANS KLEBS 1893 (СHRYSOPHYTA) IN THE MICROPHYTOBENTHOS SHALLOW WATERS OF THE BLACK SEA (UKRAINE)
Information on biology, morphology and ecology of golden alga Chrysаmoeba radians Klebs (Chrysophyta) discovered on microphytobenthos on stone of the Black Sea at shores of Crimea is considered. The photomicrographs of alive cells of the Black sea populations of this species are first resulted.
PECULIARITIES OF THE SPECIES COMPOSITION OF PHYTOPLNKTON IN THE SOUTHERN BUG RIVER IN THE REGION OF THE CITY OF VINNITSA (UKRAINE)
The composition of the planktonic algae in the Southern Bug River in the region of the city of Vinnitsa is studied, and specificity of its systematic diversity is estimated. The dominant algo complexes are revealed, and their quantitative parameters are presented. The reasons of transformation in the phytoplankton species composition of different areas of the river and a degree of their pollution by the presence of algae-indicators are discussed.
EUGLENOPHYTA OF WATER BASINS OF MOSCOW CITY AND MOSCOW REGION
Тhe diversity of Euglenophyta in Moscow and Moscow region water basions was studied. 207 species (272 taxa of specific and infraspecific level) from 25 genera, 5 families, 2 orders, 1 class, 1 section were found. Among them, 70 species (101 taxa) are reported for Moscow City for the first time. 13 species (14 taxa) are new for the whole territory of Russia.
NEW FOR THE SCIENCE SPECIES FROM THE GENUS HANNAEA PATRICK (BACILLARIOPHYTA)
On the basis of the electron microscopy study of samples from Lake Baikal (Russia) and related with him another ecosystems (River Angara and reservoir Bratskoe) Hannaea baicalensis Genkal, Popovskaya, Kulikovskiy sp. nov. was described. This species has a similarity with H. arcus, but the biseriate stria, rimoportula on the each end of valve and a larger breadth are the good distinctions from the another species.
OPTIMIZATION OF THE COMPOSITION OF NUTRITIVE MEDIUM FOR CULTIVATION SPIRULINA PLATENSIS GEITL. USING MATHEMATIC METHOD OF EXPERIMENT PLANNING
The full factorial experimental design used for optimization of the nutrient medium composition for cultivating Spirulina platensis Geitl. Optimization was carried out. The introduction into the medium of selenium (Na2 SeO3), germanium (GeO2), and iodine (KI) considerably improved the nutritive value of the biomass. Productivity on the optimized medium made up 1.55-1.60 g/L for six days of cultivation.
THE INTENSIVE CULTURES OF MICROALGAE AS PROMISING OBJECTS OF PHOTOBIOTECHNOLOGY
Some physiological features in 26 strains of microalgae from different systematic groups have been studied. These strains are characterized by high adaptive potential. All these microalgae are the promising objects of photobiotechnology.
I.Yu. Kostikov, O.V. Tyshchenko
CHARA CF. GLOBULARIS (CHAROPHYCEAE) THUILL. ORTHOTROPIC GROWTH UNDER AIR ENVIRONMENT AT THE SOIL CULTURE CONDITIONS
Two clones of Chara cf. globularis Thuill. with orthotropic thalli were found in mosses protonemas and gametophytes cultures under air conditions and 100% soil moisture capacity. The orthotropic ascending filaments formation of Charales representatives in terrestrial envinronment was not registered before. This fact may be interesting in consideration with land plants origin clarification and their relationships with streptophyte algae.
MORPHOLOGY OF PERIDINIOPSIS ELPATIEWSKYI (OSTENF.) BOURR. (DINOPHYTA) THECA
Morphology of Peridiniopsis elpatiewskyi theca was investigated on specimens from the population revealing in June 2003 in the pond in vicinities of Kiev. First data on microstructure of apical porous complex are presented; more specific information was obtained concerning the number of girdle plates. Paper is illustrated by microphotographs making on SEM.
BIOCHEMICAL PRINCIPLES FOR PHYCOERYTHRIN PRODUCTION FROM MARINE ALGAE
Biochemical principles of the production process for obtaining phycoerythrin (a food dye) from marine alga gracilaria are developed. Optimal conditions for destruction of algae and extraction of the dye (the composition of extractant, its concentration, pH, the temperature and time of treatment) are determined. General recommendations are given for creation of pilot production. The method for destruction of marine red algal biomass based on the principle of mechanical destruction of the cell wall of algae and on the freezing of the extracting agent with homogenization of algae is approved and recommended. To obtain and preliminary purify the phycoerythrin extract the successive filtration and centrifugation of the destroyed biomass of algae and extract of phycoerythrin are advanced. The membrane filtration and deposition using the 45-50% aqueous solution of ethyl alcohol or acetone is suggested for final purification and concentration of the extract. The suggested method for production of food dye from gracilaria allows us to obtain pure phycoerythrin of the intensive red-crimson color, which may be widely used in food and perfume industries as food supplements, dyes and also in the perfume, medical industries as fluorescent markers for diagnostics and in radiobiology.
ANNUAL SUCCESSION CYCLE OF PLANKTONIC ALGAL CENOSES OF ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEMS OF NORTHERN SEAS OF RUSSIA
Based on a review and analysis of multiyear data on the dynamics of the taxonomic composition and quantitative characteristics of planktonic algal cenoses of pelagic estuarine ecosystems of arctic seas, a conceptual scheme of annual succession cycle is formulated. Four phases are identified: the winter dormancy stage, the cryoflora bloom stage, the spring succession cycle, and the stage of summer-autumn balanced development.
SPECIES COMPOSITION AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYTOEPIPHYTON IN THE RIVER SECTION OF KANIV RESERVOIR (UKRAINE)
The phytoepiphyton of the river section of Kaniv reservoir was investigated. A total of 180 algal species represented by 188 intraspecific taxa including those containing nomenclatural types of the species were found. Bacillariophyta have been represented by the largest number of species (93), Chlorophyta – by 47 species, Streptophyta – by 20, Cyanoprocaryota – by 14. Euglenophyta, Dinophyta and Chrysophyta have been represented by solitary species that form 4% of all species found. Among them 69 species were epiphytonts, 111 were allochtonous. Epiphytonts were dominating in the number of species at all the stations. On the whole, 162 intraspecific taxa – indicators of ecological conditions were found. The dependency of some taxonomical structure indexes of phytoepiphyton from the hydrological regime was revealed at the first time. It has been noted that allochtonous presented by solitary specimens could not be bioindicators of ecological conditions.
CRYPTOPHYTA IN EAST-SIBERIAN WATER BODIES (RUSSIA)
The paper presents a study on the taxonomic composition, number, biomass, and primary production of Cryptophyta algae in East-Siberia water-bodies. The rivers Enisey and Angara, the water-reservoirs Krasnoyarskoe and Berezhskoe, water-bodies in the north part of the Krasnoyarsk province, Lake Baikal, East-Siberian mountain lakes, and near-Baikal small lakes have been studied. There have been revealed 23 species, 12 of them being new in the algal flora of East Siberia. There were examined features of the Cryptophyta biology, their seasonal and inter-annual dynamics in planktonic communities. Cryptophyta species were found to be a permanent component in plankton, reaching their maximal abundance while the studied water-bodies and water-flows abounded in soluble organic compounds.
MACROPHYTOBENTHOS OF ZERNOV PHYLLOPHORA FIELD IN PRESENT CONDITIONS (BLACK SEA, UKRAINE)
According to original and literature data was established the state of macrophytobenthos of Zernov Phyllophora field in modern condition. It was established, that at present time in this district are growing 28 species of seaweeds, that including to sections of Rhodophyta (17 species), Phaeophyta (6) and Chlorophyta (5). 4 species (from sections of Phaeophyta – 1 species, Rhodophyta – 2 and Chlorophyta – 1) were founded as new for this area of investigation. Broadening natural habitat of spreading of Phyllophora in area of field and presence of her young individuals are evidence of recovery processes, which take place in this area.
SPECIES OF THE GENUS PINNULARIA EHRENBERG (BACILLARIOPHYTA) FROM SPHAGNUM BOGS OF PRIVOLZHSKAYA HILLS AND POLISTOVO-LOVATSKY TRACT (RUSSIA)
Species composition of genus Pinnularia from sphagnum bogs are discussed on the basis of personal and literary data. From Privolzhskaya hills (Penza region) and Polistovo-Lovatsky sphagnous tract 19 new for the flora of Russia species are discovered. 75 species Pinnularia are recorded in these regions.
CURRENT DIVERSITY OF CHARALES OF LAKE SVITIAZ (SHATSK NATIONAL NATURAL PARK, VOLYN POLISSIA, UKRAINE)
The Charales species composition of Lake Svitiaz (Shatsk National Natural Park, Volyn Polissia, Ukraine) studied in 2006 is presented. Now there are seven species of characean algae namely Chara aculeolata Kutz. in Rchb., Ch. aspera Dethard. ex Willd., Ch. contraria A. Braun ex Kutz., Ch. delicatula C. Agardh, Ch. fragilis Desv. in Loisel., Nitella syncarpa (Thuill.) Chev. and Nitellopsis obtusa (Desv. in Loisel.) J. Groves. Also some ecological and biological data of founded species are given. A comparative analysis of original data and previous information of other authors gives evidence to some changes in the Charales species composition of Lake Svitiaz which has occurred since 50-years last century. Five new species were founded in the flora of Lake Svitiaz but Ch. polyacantha A. Braun in A. Braun, Rabenh. et Stitzenb., the rare species for Ukraine, was vanished. An area of the Ch. delicatula population, Ukrainian Red Book species, which was predominated in the past strongly reduced. Instead of it a development of the populations of Ch. aspera on sand bottom sediments and of N. obtusa on silt and silt-peaty ones was founded. An increase of the Charales species diversity is considered as a response of these algae to an anthropogenic transformation caused by agricultural activities and recreation.