IBK Mushroom Culture Collection
The curator of the IBK – Bisko Nina, Dr. Sci., Leading scientist, Laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine
Phone: +38 (044) 2723203
Bisko N.A., Lomberg M.L., Mytropolska N.Yu., Mykchaylova O.B. THE IBK MUSHROOM CULTURE COLLECTION, the jubilee edition, dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Culture Collection foundation. – 2016.
Over 10 thousand species of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota are macrofungi, or mushrooms. Mushrooms play an important role in natural environment decomposing a huge lignocellulose biomass and plant litter, forming mycorrhiza, etc. They also have considerable economic significance as objects of mushroom growing industry and as a source of pharmacological substances with oncostatic, immunomodulating, radioprotective, antiviral and other properties, dietary supplements, enzymes, antibiotics, etc.
Regarding conservation of mycobiota outside natural habitats of mushrooms, ex situ culture collections are crucial in maintaining the gene pool of macrofungi in pure culture. The Mushroom Culture Collection (acronym IBK) was established at the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, NASU in 1966 on the basis of the Department of Mycology. A founder and first curator of the IBK Collection was Dr. Professor A.S. Bukhalo (1932-2014) who defined the strategy for development of collection funds and proposed basic principles of selection and preservation of mushroom diversity.
The Collection includes a total number of 1110 strains belonging to 186 species 88 genera of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. The IBK Collection is the largest official specialized culture collection of macromycetes in Ukraine and one of the largest in number of species and strains in Europe. According to Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine № 1709 of 19 December 2001, the Mushroom Culture Collection of the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany was registered as a scientific object of national heritage of Ukraine.
The Culture Collection activities are focused on preservation of genofund of macrofungi in pure culture and fundamental research on biology and biotechnology of edible and medicinal mushrooms. Dikaryotic strains of macromycetes from different taxonomic and ecological groups of broad geographical origin are maintained in the Collection. The collection is of great environmental importance for ex situ conservation of the fungal genetic resource. Introduction to culture and preservation of rare and endangered species of fungi in Ukraine are emphasized, particularly those species which are listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine. Among them, there are ascomycetes Morchella steppicola Zerova, M. crassipes (Vent.) Pers., Gyromitra slonevskii Heluta and basidiomycetes Fomitopsis officinalis (Vill.) Bondartsev et Singer, Hericium coralloides (Fr.) Gray, Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) Gray, Sparassis crispa (Wulfen) Fr. maintained in the IBK Collection. In addition, strains of Pleurotus nebrodensis (Inzenga) Quel., until recently the only representative of the Kingdom Fungi in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, are preserved in the Collection. Due to sufficient strain diversity, it is possible to reintroduce rare species into natural habitats where they have been extinct for various reasons.
A special attention has been paid to the introduction of species and strain diversity of edible and medicinal mushrooms. Unlike other macromycetes collections, in the IBK Collection contains a large number of strains commonly cultivated worldwide by producers of edible mushrooms and dietary and pharmacological substances. They belong to the genera Pleurotus (Fr.) P. Kumm., Agaricus L., Lentinus Fr.,
Oudemansiella Speg., Flammulina P. Karst., Hericium Pers., Piptoporus Karst., Omphalotus Fayod, Schizophyllum Fr., Ganoderma P.Karst., Trametes Fr., Laetiporus Murrill, Lycoperdon Pers., Coprinus Pers., Macrolepiota Singer, etc. and are represented in the Collection by a wide diversity of strains.
Culture collection of mushrooms is an important resource for development of mushroom growing in Ukraine and biotechnologies of dietary treatment and prevention supply, food supplements, pharmaceutical and biologically active substances. Cultures of 123 species with known pharmacological properties used in international folk and traditional medicine are represented in the Collection.
Methods and storage of pure cultures of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes are determined by peculiarities of morphology, ecological and biological properties of the fungi that develop in culture mainly as asporous vegetative mycelium. Isolation of pure cultures from fruit body tissue or basidio- and ascospores are made using conventional and modified methods. For isolation and preservation of cultures, wort, malz, compost, potato-dextrose and other agar media, including added herbal extracts, are used. Cultures are preserved in refrigerator at 4±1 °C.
For species identification of basidiomycetes in vegetative stage of their development, specific criteria for identification and verification of macromycetes of certain taxonomic and ecological groups in culture are required. Peculiarities of mycelium growth and formation of fruiting bodies in culture are investigated within special program developed by the Collection staff. This program includes research on cultural-morphological characteristics using scanning electron microscopy, cultivation conditions, physiological and biochemical characteristics of strains that can be used to determine species identity of the culture.
It has been established that during cultivation period on reference agar nutrient medium, taxonomically significant at species level are: ability to form teleomorph stage; presence and type of asexual sporification; presence, shape and location on the mycelium of clamp connections, chlamydospores; formation of crystals inlays and abnormal structures on hyphae; type of filamentous colony and its radial growth rate; nature of the colored test reactions in presence of certain enzymes.
The Collection staff has developed methods of passaging, choosing selective nutrient media for some species with higher requirements for nutrients and microscopic visual system control cultures in absence of extraneous microflora which allow to maintain the viability of cultures in the Collection, including enzymatic and physiological activity, for decades.
For the development of new methods of cultivation and original culture media, based on selected strains from the IBK Culture Collection, the staff of the Department of Mycology of the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany was awarded twice by the State Prize of Ukraine in Science and Technology (1989, 2005), Award of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Academy of Sciences of Belarus and the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (2009). The staff of the Collection has organized the First International Conference “Perspectives of Medicinal Mushrooms in Care Health and Nutrition in 21st century” devoted to issues of biology and biotechnology of medicinal mushrooms, held in Kiev in 2001.
The Collection regularly integrates new strains. Isolation of macromycetes into the culture collection to enrich the fund is performed in the field during expedition trips and in laboratory. All mycological material before the isolation is identified by mycologists, experts in taxonomy of relevant groups of fungi. The majority of cultures were isolated from the natural material in Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Czech Republic, Israel and the USA. Some cultures were obtained from other collections, institutions and mycologists.
The Culture Collection of mushrooms provides consulting on methodological issues and identification of cultures, exchanges of culture collections around the world. Collection IBK is a major scientific and information basis for fundamental and applied research, training of master, bachelor and theses in biology and biotechnology of macromycetes in research institutions and higher educational institutions of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Moldova, Latvia and other countries. For the last 50 years, the species and strains of IBK Collection were the research objects for 22 PhD and 7 DrSci theses, as well as the basis for publication of 11 monographs, numerous articles in national and international journals.
The IBK collection is also included in the international database of WFCC (world data centre for microorganisms), the curator of the collection is Dr. Bisko N.A., access code 1152.
The most important publications which include information about the Collection and investigated strains are cited in the Catalogue (the list of publications).
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
- Buchalo A.S. Pure culture of Higher Basidiomycetes. In: Methods of experimental mycology. – K.: “Naukova dumka”, 1982. – P. 448-461. (Russ.)
- Buchаlo A.S. Higher edible Basidiomycetes in pure culture. – K.: “Naukova dumka”, 1988. – 144 p. (Russ.)
- Buchalo A.S. Studies on Medicinal Mushrooms at the National Ukrainian Culture Collection // Int. J. of Med. Mush. – 2001. – V. 3, № 2-3. – P. 93.
- Anischenko I.M., Gurinovich N.V., Mitropolskaya N.Yu., Klechak I.R. Using Information Databases for the Study of Strains of Biotechnologically Valuable High Basidiomycetes // Naukovi visti. – 2010. – № 3. – С. 5-9.
- Antonenko L.O., Bisko N.A., Mytropolska N.Yu., Klechak I.R. Boundary Temperatures for Cultivation of Basidiomycetess Mushrooms of Genus Coriolus Quel. in the Surface Culture // Naukovi visti. – 2011. – № 3. – С. 7-11.
- Babitskaya V.G., Bisko N.A., Scherba V.V., Mitropolskaya N.Yu. Some Biologically Active Substances from Medicinal Muchroom Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) // Int. J. of Med. Mush. – 2003. – V. 5, № 3, – P. 301-305.
- Buchalo A.S., Katchurovska V.P., Mitropolskaya N.Yu. Culture characteristic of rare species of macromycetes (Basidiomycotina) // Ukr. Botan. Journ. – 1995. – V. 52, № 1 – P. 104-113. (Ukr.)
- Buchalo A., Mykchaylova O., Lomberg M., and Wasser S.P. Microstructures of vegetative mycelium of macromycetes in pure cultures // Eds. P.A. Volz and E. Nevo. – Kiev: Alterpress. – 2009. – 224 p.
- Buchalo A.S., Diduch M.Ya. Micromorphological characteristics of culinary-medicinal Mushroom and Fungi cultures // Int. J. of Med. Mush. – 2005. – V. 7, № 1&2. – P. 249-262.
- Buchalo A.S., Didukh M.Ya., Mykhaylova O.B., Lynovitska V.M. Microstructures in Medicinal Mushroom Cultures // Int. J. of Med. Mush. – 2005. – V. 7, № 3. – P. 389-390.
- Buchalo A.S., Mitropolskaya N.Yu. Higher Basidiomycetes culture collection at N.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev) // Ukr. Botan. Journ. – 1994. – V. 51, № 1. – P. 125-130. (Ukr.)
- Buchalo A.S., Mitropolskaya N.Yu. Investigations at the Ukrainian Culture Collection of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms // Int. J. of Med. Mush. – 2002. – V. 4, № 3. – P. 245-254.
- Buchalo A.S., Poyedinok N.L., Mykchaylova O.B., Bisko N.A., Puchkova T.A., Wasser S.P. Morphological and micromorphological peculiarities of Cordyceps militaris (L.: Fr) Link. and C. sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Link. in pure culture // Int. J. of Med. Mush. – 2009. – V. 11, № 4. – P. 260–261.
- Fomina V.I., Mitropol’skaya N.Yu., Bis’ko N.A., Shevtsova L.V. The screening of high productive strains of Lentinus edodes // Mycology and phytopathology. – 2003. – V. 37, № 2. – P. 60-65. (Russ.)
- Mitropolskaya N.Yu., Buchalo A.S. Culture Collection of Mushrooms at N.G.Kholodny Institute of Botany NASU (Ukraine) // Int. J. of Med. Mush. – 2001. – V. 3, № 2-3. – P. 181.
- Mykchaylova O.B., Buchalo A.S. Morphological characteristic of morels pure cultures Morchellaceae (Ascomycetes) on agar nutrional media // Ukr. Botan. Journ. – 2005. – V. 62, № 4. – P. 500-508. (Ukr.)
- Mykchaylova O.B., Buchalo A.S. Mycelial microstructures in pure cultures of the representatives of Morchellaceae (Ascomycota) // Ukr. Botan. Journ. – 2005. – V. 62, № 6. – P. 790-796. (Ukr.)
- Solomko E.F., Lomberg M.L., Mitropolska N.Yu., Cholovska E.V. The growth of some medicinal macromycetes species on the different nutritious media // Ukr. Botan. Journ. – 2000. – V. 57, № 2. – P. 119-125. (Ukr.)
- Weis A.L., Solomko E.F., Buchalo A.S., Wasser S.P., Mitropolskaya N.Yu., Grigansky A.Ph., Gorovits E.L. Cultural stady and illudin S production of medicinal mushroom Omphalotus olearius (DC.: Fr.) Fay. (Agaricales s.l.) from Israel // Int. J. of Med. Mush. – 1999. – V. 1, № 1. – P. 93-103.
- Bisko N.A., Lomberg M.L., Mytropolska N.Yu., Mykchaylova O.B. THE IBK MUSHROOM CULTURE COLLECTION. – Kyiv, M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine – Kiyv: “Alterpres”, 2016. – 120 p.: 8 fig.